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Tag: Physiotherapy

Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle

Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle

In this article we will discuss about the Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle.

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Zika Fever

Zika Fever

In this blog we will discuss about Zika Fever causative agent Zika Virus Family Flaviviridae.

Mode of transmission is through blood transfusion and sexual transmission.

Symptoms include

Fever

Rash

Muscle and Joint pain

Headache

Red eyes

These symptoms resembles Dengue and Chickengunya


The first major outbreak, with 185 confirmed cases, was reported in 2007 in the Yap Islands of the Federated States of Micronesia. A total of 108 cases were confirmed by PCR or serology and 72 additional cases were suspected. The most common symptoms were rash, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, and no deaths were reported. The mosquito Aedes hensilli, which was the predominant species identified in Yap during the outbreak, was probably the main vector of transmission.

In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infections in Brazil. Even so, cases were reported in 14 states of the country. Mosquito-borne Zika virus is suspected to be the cause of 2,400 cases of microcephaly and 29 infant deaths in Brazil in 2015.

Zika virus can be identified by Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in acutely ill patients.
WHO recommends RT-PCR testing be done on serum collected within 1 to 3 days of symptom onset or on saliva samples collected during the first 3 to 5 days.

Treatment is mainly conservative i.e to take ample of fluids, take proper rest, take paracetamol.

Precaution includes use mosquito repellent, avoid sex during period of infection as the virus can be sexually transmitted, wear ling sleeves clothing.

Complications include in case of pregnant women the child can suffer microcephaly, it can also cause Guillain Barre Syndrome.

Differential Diagnosis includes Chickengunya, Dengue,
Leptospirosis, Malaria, Measles.

Symptoms and Complications of Typhoid Fever

Symptoms and Complications of Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever also known as Enteric Fever caused due to Salmonella Typhi Bacteria.

Following are the Symptoms and Complications of Typhoid Fever :-

SYMPTOMS

In the First week we observe Fever with bradycardia also known as Faget sign, Malaise, Headache, Epistaxis, Leukopenia and Widal test is negative in first week.

In Second week we observe High fever ( aroud 40°C ) and Bradycardia, Rose spots appears on lower chest and abdomen, and Rhonchi are heard in lung bases.

Other symptoms include

Pain in right lower quadrant of abdomen, Hepatosplenomegaly, Loss of appetite, Diarrhea or Constipation, Muscle Ache, Joint Pain, Weakness and Fatigue.

COMPLICATIONS

Intestinal Haemorrhage

Intestinal Perforation

Pneumonia and Bronchitis

Encephalitis
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (“muttering delirium” or “coma vigil”)

In the next blog we will discuss about the treatment of “Typhoid Fever”. Do share this article as much as possible and spread health awareness.

Causes of Posterior Knee Pain

Causes of Posterior Knee Pain

Sometimes people complaint about pain and tenderness at the posterior part of their knee i.e back of knee but they are unaware about the exact pathology behind that pain in this blog we will discuss about the various causes that are responsible for posterior knee pain.

Following are the various causes of posterior knee pain :-

BAKER’S CYST

BICEPS FEMORIS TENDONITIS (HAMSTRING MUSCLE)

MENISCAL INJURY

POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY

PATELLAR TENDONITIS

DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS

GASTROCNEMIUS TENDONITIS (CALF MUSCLE)

CLAUDICATION (CRAMPS)

CHONDROMALACIA

OSTEOARTHRITIS

In the next article we will discuss about treatment of posterior as well as anterior knee pain along with various knee mobilization techniques , home based knee rehabilitation exercises and different types of supports and braces available for knee stability and pain relief.

Causes of Wrist Pain

Causes of Wrist Pain

Wrist pain is a common condition with various pathologies, when pain occurs, it can interfere with day-to-day activities and even impact a person’s quality of life.

Following are the various causes of wrist pain listed below

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Ganglion Cysts

De’Quervain Tenosynovitis

Kienbock’s Disease

Osteoarthritis of Wrist

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Injury

Wrist Tendonitis

Wrist Bursitis

Repetitive Motion Syndrome

Carpal Boss

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Wrist Sprain

Wrist Fracture (Scaphoid Fracture)

Hamstring Strengthening Exercises

Hamstring Strengthening Exercises

The Hamstring Muscle is composed of three major muscles viz.

SEMIMEMBRANOSUS

SEMITENDINOSUS

BICEPS FEMORIS

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ORIGIN

SEMIMEMBRANOSUS

It originates from ischial tuberosity in hip bone.

SEMITENDINOSUS

Ischial tuberosity of hip.

BICEPS FEMORIS

Ischial tuberosity of hip – long head

Linea Aspera and Lateral Supracondylar line of femur – short head

INSERTION

SEMIMEMBRANOSUS

Medial tibial condyle.

SEMITENDINOSUS

Medial surface of tibia

BICEPS FEMORIS

Lateral side of head of fibula

ARTERY SUPPLY

Inferior gluteal Artery

Profunda femoris Artery

NERVE SUPPLY

Sciatic Nerve ( Tibial and Common peroneal nerve)

ACTION

Flexion of knee

Extension of hip

HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

REVERSE PLANK HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISE

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Video link below

https://youtu.be/-lidtcouEQM

SWISS BALL HAMSTRING CURL

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Video link below

https://youtu.be/oAYtwM95-ug

CABLE PULL THROUGH

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Video link below

https://youtu.be/TGPCu4bNRXY

KETTLEBELL DEADLIFT

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Video link below

https://youtu.be/nqzf1Irdeho

DUMBBELLS DEADLIFT

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Video link below

https://youtu.be/tH0stBpF7ko

BARBELLS DEADLIFT

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Video link below

https://youtu.be/7Q_GnXm7LbI

HAMSTRING CURL WITH SLIDERS

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Video link below

BARBELL BACK SQUAT

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Video link below

https://youtu.be/SW_C1A-rejs

BULGARIAN SPLIT SQUAT

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Video link below

https://youtu.be/2C-uNgKwPLE

Video Credits

Scott Herman Fitness

https://www.youtube.com/user/ScottHermanFitness

Roy Pumphrey

https://www.youtube.com/user/RoyPumphrey

Testosterone Nation

https://www.youtube.com/user/TestosteroneNation

Stefanie Williams

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC2VDctRBo0Xo1huKwlTN6BQ

Mark Beirer

https://www.youtube.com/user/markbeier1

Kinetic Revolution

https://www.youtube.com/user/RunningRevolution

Scoliosis

Scoliosis

It is a complex deformity of spine characterized by abnormal sideways curvature of spine or increased lateral curvature and rotation of vertebrae involving deformity of rib cage.

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CAUSES

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CAUSES

Congenital Scoliosis – bone malformation present at birth.

Neuromuscular Scoliosis – results from abnormal muscles or nerves seen in people with spina bifida and cerebral palsy.

Degenerative Scoliosis – results from traumatic bone collapse.

Idiopathic Scoliosis – results from no specified identifiable cause.

CLINICAL FEATURES AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Deformities like skew back, rib hump

Asymmetrical breast and shoulder level

One shoulder blade is more prominent than other

On bending rotation of spine becomes more prominent

Asymmetrical hip

Associated with skin pigmentation

Associated back pain

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Idiopathic Scoliosis is associated with CHD7 and MATN1 gene.

Congenital scoliosis has been associated with malformation of the spine during 3-6 weeks in utero due to a failure of formation, a failure of segmentation, or a combination of stimuli.

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND DIAGNOSIS

Various diagnosis and physical examination is applied to evaluate Scoliosis spine curvature

COBB METHOD
In this a horizontal line is drawn on the upper part of the first vertebrae involved in the curve and a horizontal line is drawn from the lower part of the last vertebrae involved in the curve now a perpendicular line is drawn from both horizontal lines, the angle formed at the intersection is the “Cobb Angle”.

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RISSER FERGUSON METHOD

In this method a line is drawn from the centre of the first vertebrae involved and a line us drawn from the centre of the last vertebrae involved in the curve, the point of intersection of these lines gives the Angle of Scoliosis according to Risser Ferguson Method.

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ADAM’S FORWARD BEND TEST

Bend forward flexion reveals abnormal uneven framework of spine suggestive of Scoliosis.

COMPLICATIONS

Lung and Heart Disease

Chronic Back Pain

Long term Postural Abnormalities

Physiotherapy Management

Physiotherapist have three important considerations firstly is to inform, advice and instruct. For the treatment of scoliosis, it’s not only important to do the correct exercises but the physical therapist also needs to inform the patient &/or parents about his/her situation. An educational program makes sure that the therapy accuracy from the patient improves. Some physiotherapists recommend a brace to prevent the worsening of the scoliosis. An often used brace is the Milwaukee Brace. We can conclude that bracing is recommended as a treatment for female patients with a Cobb angle of 25-35°. In this it is evident that bracing and exercises have positive effects on patients with idiopathic Scoliosis

Schroth Method for Scoliosis Management

Goals -:

Stabilization of the curves

Mobilization of stiff body parts

Improve postural alignment

Teach activities of daily living

Promotes corrections

Enhance neuromuscular control

Increase muscle strength and endurance

Pain reduction

Improve Cardio-pulmonary function

Exercises given are

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Pilates for Scoliosis

The SEAS exercises are, according to the Italian Scientific Spine Institute, based on a specific form of Active Self-correction, that is advised and taught individually to every patient. This is to achieve the maximum possible structural correction

Manipulation and Electrical Stimulation
are also used for Scoliosis management

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Cape Town, South Africa
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