Category Archives: Anatomy

Rhomboid major muscle

In this article we will discuss about Rhomboid major muscle. So let’s get started.

Rhomboid major

It originates from the spinous processes of T2-T5 vertebrae and supraspinous ligament and gets inserted into the medial border of scapula inferior to the rhomboid minor. It is innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve and the artery supply is through the dorsal scapular artery. It’s chief action is retraction of scapula. Clinically high intensity injury to rhomboid major muscle leads to scapular instability.

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Levator scapulae muscle

In this article we will discuss about Levator scapulae muscle. So let’s get started.

Levator scapulae

It originates from the posterior tubercle of transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae and gets inserted into the medial border of scapula. It is innervated by the cervical nerve and dorsal scapular nerve and artery supply is through the dorsal scapular artery. It’s chief action is elevation of scapula. Clinically inflammation of levator scapulae leads to “Levator Scapulae Syndrome”.

Teres minor muscle

In this article we will discuss about Teres minor muscle. So let’s get started.

Teres minor muscle

It originates from the upper 2/3rd of the dorsal surface of axillary or lateral border of scapula and gets inserted into the inferior facet of the greater tubercle of humerus. It is innervated by axillary nerve and artery supply is through the posterior circumflex humeral artery and circumflex scapular artery. It’s chief action is lateral rotation of arm. Clinically it is a part of rotator cuff musculature and atrophy of teres minor is often a consequence of a rotator cuff tear.

Latissimus dorsi muscle

In this article we will discuss about Latissimus dorsi muscle. So let’s get started.

Lattisimus dorsi muscle

It originates from the spinous process of T7-L5 vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inferior 3 or 4 ribs and inferior angle of scapula and inserts into the floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus. It’s artery supply is through the subscapular artery and is innervated through the thoracodorsal nerve. It’s chief action is adduction, extension and internal rotation at shoulder joint. Clinically latissimus dorsi muscle is used as a source of muscle for breast reconstruction. Stiffness or tight latissimus dorsi leads to chronic shoulder pain and is also used in cardiomyoplasty.

Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

In this article we will discuss about Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. So let’s get started.

Flexor carpi ulnaris

It’s humeral head originates from the medial epicondyle of humerus and ulnar head originates from the medial margin of the olecranon process of ulna and gets inserted into the pisiform bone, hook of hamate by pisohamate ligament and base of fifth metacarpal by pisometacarpal ligament. It is innervated by ulnar nerve and recieves artery supply through the ulnar artery. It’s chief action is flexion and adduction of hand at wrist. Clinically entrapment of ulnar nerve by the aponeurosis of two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris leads to “cubital tunnel syndrome”.

Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

In this article we will discuss about Flexor digitorum profundus muscle. So let’s get started.

Flexor digitorum profundus

It originates from the proximal 3/4th of the anterior and medial surface of ulna, interrosseus membrane and deep fascia of forearm and gets inserted into the base of distal phalanges of medial four digits. It is innervated by anterior interrosseus nerve and muscular branches of ulnar nerve. It’s artery supply is through the anterior interrosseus artery. It’s chief action is Flexion of wrist, metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. Clinically avulsion injury of flexor digitorum profundus muscle causes “Jersey finger”.

Phrenic nerve

In this article we will discuss about Phrenic nerve. So let’s get started.

Phrenic nerve

It originates basically from C4 and partly from C5&C6 and majorly supplies motor fibres to diaphragm and sensory fibres to pericardium, mediastinal pleura and diaphragm peritoneum. It has two division right and left phrenic nerve. The right phrenic nerve courses over the brachio-cephalic artery, posterior to the subclavian vein, and crosses anteriorly to the root of right lung and then leaves the thorax passing through the vena cava hiatus opening in the diaphragm at the level of T8. It passes over the right atrium whereas left phrenic artery passes over the pericardium of the left ventricle and passes through the diaphragm. Irritation of phrenic nerve leads to hiccup reflex and disease or abscess in phrenic nerve causes referred pain in the concerned shoulder i.e left phrenic nerve corresponding referred pain to left shoulder.