In this article, we will discuss about the Abdominal Internal Oblique muscle. So, let’s get started.
Abdominal Internal Oblique muscle
It originates from the thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3rd of the iliac crest, and lateral half of the inguinal ligament and gets inserted into the linea alba, pectineal line of the pubis and lower ribs (8-12th). It is innervated by the thoracolumbar nerve (T7-L1) and artery supply is through the subcoastal arteries. Its chief action is the ipsilateral rotation and side-bending of the trunk, it also acts as an accessory muscle that helps in respiration (helps in reducing the volume of the chest cavity during exhalation).
In this article, we will discuss about the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. So, let’s get started.
Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle
It originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and posterior border of the ulna and gets inserted into the base of the 5th metacarpal. It is innervated by the posterior interosseous nerve and artery supply is through the ulnar artery. Its chief action is extension and adduction of the wrist. Clinically, injury to extensor carpi ulnaris muscle leads to Tennis elbow.
In this article, we will discuss about the Extensor pollicis brevis muscle. So, let’s get started.
Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
It originates from the interosseous membrane, and lower 1/3rd of the posterior part of the radius and gets inserted into the posterior surface of base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. It is innervated by the posterior interosseous nerve (branch of the radial nerve) and artery supply is through the posterior interosseus artery. Its chief action is extension of the thumb at the metacarpophalangeal joint, abduction of carpometacarpal joint, and assists in radial deviation.
In this article, we will discuss about Myofascial trigger points. So, let’s get started.
Myofascial trigger points
Myofascial trigger points are discrete, focal, hyperirritable or hypersensitive soft tissue areas/spots (taut like band) that are felt like palpable nodules. They produce pain locally or in a referred pattern often acompanied by chronic musculokeletal disorders. Repetitive stress, acute trauma or microtrauma often leads to developoment of myofascial trigger points. Symptoms includes persistent pain (localized or referred), tenderness of the affected region, and decreased range of motion of the affected muscle. On palpation the trigger points are felt harder than normal consistency, nodular, and occasionally tender. Management includes Spray and Stretch technique, Trigger point pressure release technique, Myofascial release therapy, and Trigger point injection such as dry needling are some of the effective treatment modalities for trigger point pain relief.
Diiferent types of trigger points
Primary and Secondary/Central and Satellite trigger points
Primary or Central trigger points are local trigger points which when palpated produces pain. Specific characteristics includes that they are well-established, high intensity pain zone, and are present at or in the vicinity of neuromuscular junction.
Secondary or Satellite trigger points are present in the neighbouring areas of the central trigger points within the referred pain zone.
Active and Latent trigger points
Active trigger points can be applied to both central and satellite trigger points, they are tender to palpation and elicits a referred pain pattern. Pain can limit range of motion
Latent trigger points are not painful and do not elicits any referred pain. Although their presence leads to increased muscle tension/tighteness and stiffness. Force palpation or stimulation such force muscular activity or trauma or acute injury can re-activate an inactive trigger point.
We will further differentiate between active and latent trigger points as stated below
In this article, we will discuss about the Mentalis muscle. So, let’s get started.
It originates from the anterior portion of the mandible (from the mentum) and gets inserted into the soft tissue of the chin. It is innervated by the facial nerve and artery supply is through the facial artery. Its chief action is elevation and wrinkling of the skin of the chin and protrusion of the lower lip. Clinically, Geniospasm is the genetic movement disorder of the mentalis muscle.