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Anatomy of Shoulder Joint

In this article, we will discuss about the Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint. So, let’s gets started.

Anatomy

Joint type– Synovial Ball and Socket Joint, Diarthrosis, and multiaxial joint

Degree of freedom– 3

Bones involved– Glenoid cavity of Scapula and Head of Humerus

Joint Spaces– Glenohumeral space (4-5 mm), Subacromial space (9-10 mm), and Axillary space.

Muscles surrounding the joint– Biceps brachii, and rotator cuff musculature (which involves subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor)

Joint capsule– Articular capsule of the humerus

Bursa– Subacromial-subdeltoid bursa present between the joint capsule and deltoid muscle. subacromial bursa present between the joint capsule and the acromion process, subcoracoid bursa present between the joint capsule and coracoid process, coracobrachial bursa present between the coracobrachialis muscle and the subscapularis muscle, subscapular bursa present between the joint capsule and subscapularis muscle, and supra-acromial bursa.

Ligaments– Capsular ligament, superior, middle, and inferior glenohumeral ligament, coracohumeral ligament, coraco-acromial ligament, and transverse humeral ligament.

Nerve supply– Subscapular, left pectoral, and axillary nerve.

Artery supply– Anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. suprascapular artery, and scapular circumflex artery.

Shoulder joint movements (muscles involved along with axis and planes)

1. Movement- Flexion

Muscles involved- Pectoralis major, anterior fibres of the deltoid, supraspinatus, and coracobrachialis.

Axis and Plane- Frontal axis and Sagittal plane

2. Movement- Extension

Muscles involved- Lattisimus dorsi, posterior fibres of the deltoid, and triceps brachii

Axis and Plane- Frontal axis and Sagittal plane

3. Movement- Abduction

Muscles involved- Deltoid, supraspinatus, trapezius, and serratus anterior

Axis and Plane- Sagittal axis and Frontal plane

4. Movement- Adduction

Muscles involved- Pectoralis major, lattisimus dorsi, teres major, and subscapularis

Axis and Plane- Frontal plane and Sagittal axis

5. Movement- Internal rotation

Muscles involved- Deltoid (anterior fibres), teres major, pectoralis major, lattisimus dorsi, and subscapularis

Axis and Plane- Vertical axis and transverse plane

6. Movement- Lateral rotation

Muscles involved- Deltoid (posterior fibres), infraspinatus, and teres minor

Axis and Plane- Vertical axis and transverse plane

7. Movement- Horizontal abduction

Muscles involved- Subscapularis, supraspinatus, and deltoid (posterior fibres)

Axis and Plane- Vertical axis and transverse plane

8. Movement- Horizontal adduction

Muscles involved- Pectoralis major, biceps brachii, and deltoid (anterior fibres)

Axis and Plane- Vertical axis and transverse plane

9. Movement- Diagonal adduction

Muscles involved- Pectoralis major, deltoid (anterior fibres), and biceps brachii

Axis and Plane- Diagonal axis and diagonal plane

10. Movement- Diagonal abduction

Muscles involved- Subscapularis, deltoid, and supraspinatus

Axis and Plane- Diagonal axis and diagonal plane

11. Circumduction- Combination of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction.

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Zygomaticus Major muscle

In this article, we will discuss about the Zygomaticus Major muscle. So, let’s get started.

Zygomaticus Major muscle

It originates from the zygomatic arch in front of the zygomaticotemporal suture and gets inserted into the angle of mouth. It is innervated by the facial nerve (buccal and zygomatic branch) and artery supply is through the facial artery (superior labial branch). Its chief action is drawing the angle of mouth upward and laterally, contraction of this muscle produces laughing expression (smile).

Symptoms of Syringomyelia

In this article, we will discuss about the Symptoms of Syringomyelia. So, let’s gets started.

Symptoms

Symptoms of the spinal cord and corresponding nerve damage depend upon the location, size, and extent of the Syrinx (fluid-filled cyst) and is usually exacerbates when the syrinx puts pressure on the spinal cord. The symptoms develop slowly overtime and action such as coughing or straining triggers/increases the symptoms. Following are the symptoms of Syringomyelia:

Pain

Progressive weakness of the upper and lower extremities

Stiffness or tightness in the back (thoracic/lumbar), shoulders, cervical, arms or legs

Impaired sensation to pain, temperature (hot/cold) in the hands

Facial pain and numbness and/or headache

Numbness or tingling sensation on upper or lower extremities

Impaired balance along with gait (walking) abnormalities

Urinary or rectal incontinence

Sexual dysfunction

The curvature of the spine or Scoliosis (present as classical or only sign in children)

Iliocostalis thoracis muscle

In this article, we will discuss about the Iliocostalis thoracis muscle. So, let’s get started.

Iliocostalis thoracis muscle

It originates from the upper borders of the lower six ribs (T7-T12) medial to the insertion of iliocostalis lumborum and gets inserted into the upper borders of upper six ribs (T1-T6) and into the posterior part of the transverse process of C7. It is innervated by the dorsal rami of thoracic spinal nerve and artery supply is through the intercostal arteries. It’s chief action is extension of thoracic spine (bilateral) and lateral flexion of the thoracic spine (unilateral).

Iliocostalis cervicis muscle

In this article, we will discuss about the Iliocostalis cervicis muscle. So, let’s get started.

Iliocostalis cervicis muscle

It originates from the angles of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth (3-6) ribs and gets inserted into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the fourth, fifth, and sixth (4-6) cervical vertebrae. It is innervated by the posterior branch of the spinal nerve (C6-C8) and artery supply is through the intercostal arteries. Its chief action is unilateral flexion of the cervical vertebrae to the ipsilateral side and extension of the cervical vertebrae.

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