Author Archives: priyeshbanerjeept

Rhomboid major muscle

In this article we will discuss about Rhomboid major muscle. So let’s get started.

Rhomboid major

It originates from the spinous processes of T2-T5 vertebrae and supraspinous ligament and gets inserted into the medial border of scapula inferior to the rhomboid minor. It is innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve and the artery supply is through the dorsal scapular artery. It’s chief action is retraction of scapula. Clinically high intensity injury to rhomboid major muscle leads to scapular instability.

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Levator scapulae muscle

In this article we will discuss about Levator scapulae muscle. So let’s get started.

Levator scapulae

It originates from the posterior tubercle of transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae and gets inserted into the medial border of scapula. It is innervated by the cervical nerve and dorsal scapular nerve and artery supply is through the dorsal scapular artery. It’s chief action is elevation of scapula. Clinically inflammation of levator scapulae leads to “Levator Scapulae Syndrome”.

What is HbA1c level?

In this articel we will discuss about What is HbA1c level? So let’s get started.

HbA1c level

It refers to glycated hemoglobin level. It tells about the average blood sugar level over the past 2-3 months. When hemoglobin attaches with glucose it forms “glycated hemoglobin”.

Range of HbA1c

Below 6.0% it’s normal 6.0%-6.4% it’s prediabetes and from 6.5% and above it’s diabetes.

Commonly used clinician range

The American Diabetes Association recommends target of HbA1c level less than 7% DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complication Trial) for effective management of diabetes and prevention of risks.

Teres minor muscle

In this article we will discuss about Teres minor muscle. So let’s get started.

Teres minor muscle

It originates from the upper 2/3rd of the dorsal surface of axillary or lateral border of scapula and gets inserted into the inferior facet of the greater tubercle of humerus. It is innervated by axillary nerve and artery supply is through the posterior circumflex humeral artery and circumflex scapular artery. It’s chief action is lateral rotation of arm. Clinically it is a part of rotator cuff musculature and atrophy of teres minor is often a consequence of a rotator cuff tear.

What is kuru disease?

In this article we will discuss about Kuru disease. So let’s get started.

Kuru disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, a very rare neurodegenerative disease that was commonly found in Fore people of Papua New Guinea. It is caused due to presence of abnormally folded proteins called prion protein. It is transmitted among the Fore tribe of Papua New Guinea via funerary cannibalism which is a practice of eating body parts of deceased family members. Since women and children usually eats the brain tissue the prevalence of this disease is more in them. It is characterized by laughing sickness, progressive cerebellar ataxia or loss of co-ordination and uncontrollable muscle movements. It has following stages viz preclinical stage, clinical stage, ambulant stage, sedentary stage and terminal stage. There are 2700 cases reported between 1954-2004. Prognosis is usually fatal.

Latissimus dorsi muscle

In this article we will discuss about Latissimus dorsi muscle. So let’s get started.

Lattisimus dorsi muscle

It originates from the spinous process of T7-L5 vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inferior 3 or 4 ribs and inferior angle of scapula and inserts into the floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus. It’s artery supply is through the subscapular artery and is innervated through the thoracodorsal nerve. It’s chief action is adduction, extension and internal rotation at shoulder joint. Clinically latissimus dorsi muscle is used as a source of muscle for breast reconstruction. Stiffness or tight latissimus dorsi leads to chronic shoulder pain and is also used in cardiomyoplasty.

Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

In this article we will discuss about Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. So let’s get started.

Flexor carpi ulnaris

It’s humeral head originates from the medial epicondyle of humerus and ulnar head originates from the medial margin of the olecranon process of ulna and gets inserted into the pisiform bone, hook of hamate by pisohamate ligament and base of fifth metacarpal by pisometacarpal ligament. It is innervated by ulnar nerve and recieves artery supply through the ulnar artery. It’s chief action is flexion and adduction of hand at wrist. Clinically entrapment of ulnar nerve by the aponeurosis of two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris leads to “cubital tunnel syndrome”.

Flexor digitorum profundus muscle

In this article we will discuss about Flexor digitorum profundus muscle. So let’s get started.

Flexor digitorum profundus

It originates from the proximal 3/4th of the anterior and medial surface of ulna, interrosseus membrane and deep fascia of forearm and gets inserted into the base of distal phalanges of medial four digits. It is innervated by anterior interrosseus nerve and muscular branches of ulnar nerve. It’s artery supply is through the anterior interrosseus artery. It’s chief action is Flexion of wrist, metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. Clinically avulsion injury of flexor digitorum profundus muscle causes “Jersey finger”.

Symptoms of ulcerative colitis

In this article we will discuss about Symptoms of ulcerative colitis. So let’s get started.

Symptoms

Abdominal pain

Fever

Fatigue

Blood or pus in stool

Recurring diarrhoea

Weight loss

Reduced appetite

Tenesmus or feeling of incomplete defecation

Abnormal bowel sounds

Mild is when frequency of diarrhea or loose stools is less than 4 per day along with mild abdominal pain and may be presence of blood in stools.

Moderate is upto 6 loose stools which may be blood-tinged.

Severe is more than 6 bloody loose stools along with fever, fatigue and tachycardia.

Very fulminant ulcerative colitis is more than 10 bloody loose stools along with abdominal tenderness

Brachial artery

In this article we will discuss about Brachial artery. So let’s get started.

Brachial artery

It originates at the lower border of the teres major muscle as a continuation of axillary artery and ends at cubital fossa in the level of the neck of radius it is then gets divided into radial and ulnar arteries. It gives rise to following branches

Profunda brachii artery

Superior ulnar collateral artery

Inferior ulnar collateral artery

Radial artery

Ulnar artery.

Clinically it is palpable on the anterior aspect of elbow and is used to measure the blood pressure.

Injury to brachial artery as a consequence of humeral fracture leads to Volkmann Ischemic Contracture.

Relation to surrounding structures

Anteriorly- Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm, median nerve and bicipital aponeurosis.

Posteriorly- Medial and long head of triceps and brachialis muscles.

Medically- Ulnar nerve, basilic vein and median nerve.

Laterally- Median nerve, coracobrachialis muscle and biceps brachii muscle.

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