Structure and Transmission of Coronavirus

In this article, we will discuss the Structure and Transmission of Coronavirus. So, let’s get started.

Structure

They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense-single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases. ‘Coronavirus’ the name is derived from latin word ‘corona’ which means crown or halo referring to the characteristic appearance of a crown around the virus particles when viewed under 2-D TEM (transmission electron microscopy).

Transmission

Transmission (human to human) is primarily through close contacts via respiratory droplets generated by sneezing or coughing. The interaction of coronavirus spike protein with its complement host cell receptor is central in determining the tissue tropism, infectivity, and species range of the virus. SARS Coronavirus infects human cells by attaching to ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme) receptor.

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Prevention from Coronavirus Infection

In this article, we will discuss the Prevention from Coronavirus Infection. So, let’s get started.

Prevention

According to CDC and WHO, following are the general preventive measures one should be adopt in order to prevent spread of infection. As of now, no vaccine is available for this infection.

1. Avoid close contact with people who are sick.

2. Follow good respiratory hygiene, i.e. use tissue paper and cover your mouth and nose while coughing and sneezing and dispose the tissue paper immediately.

3. Stay home when you are sick.

4. Clean and disinfect regularly used objects, utensils, and surfaces using a regular household cleaning spray or wipe.

5. Avoid spitting in public.

6. Facemasks should be used by people who show symptoms of coronavirus infection. CDC does not recommend people who are well wear a facemask in order to protect themselves from infection.

7. Wash your hands often with alcohol based hand rub or soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to washroom, before eating, and after sneezing, coughing or blowing your nose. You can also use alcohol based sanitizer.

If one has symptoms of fever, cough, and difficulty breathing seek medical attention and share previous travel history with your health care provider.

Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus infection

In this article, we will discuss various Symptoms of the Novel Coronavirus infection. So, let’s get started.

Coronaviruses are enveloped non-segmented positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. Although most human coronavirus infections are mild, the epidemics of the two beta coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have caused more than 10000 cumulative cases in the past two decades, with mortality rates of 10% for SARS-CoV and 37% for MERS-CoV. In December 2019, a series of pneumonia cases of unknown cause emerged in Wuhan, Hubel, China, with clinical presentation greatly resembling pneumonia. Deep sequencing analysis from lower respiratory tract samples indicated a novel coronavirus, which was named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The following are the symptoms of coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV). Majority cases are being reported from China, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, and the USA.

Symptoms

Common symptoms

Fever

Cough

Shortness of Breath

Myalgia

Fatigue

Less common symptoms include:

Sputum production

Headache

Hemoptysis

Diarrhea

Dyspnea

According to CDC symptoms of 2019-nCov may appear in 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure.