Classification of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

In this article, we will discuss the Classification of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. So, let’s get started.

Classification

Sars coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was first identified in the year 2003 when it caused an epidemic of fatal human pneumonia that had an epicenter in Hong Kong. Sars is an enveloped positive-sense-single-stranded RNA virus and is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus (group 2) and subgenus Sarbecovirus (subgroup B). Complete classification is given below:

  • Realm – Riboviria
  • Phylum – incertae sedis
  • Order – Nidovirales
  • Family – Coronaviridae
  • Genus – Betacoronavirus
  • Subgenus – Sarbecovirus

SARS-CoV-2 strain is responsible for causing the 2019-20 global pandemic of coronavirus disease. Bats are a major reservoir of many strains of SARS related coronavirus. Recently the virus (strains SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) has evolved and made cross species jump from bats to humans. Both these strains descended from single ancestor but made the cross species jump into humans seperately. SARS-CoV-2 is not a direct descendant of SARS-CoV.

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Structure and Transmission of Coronavirus

In this article, we will discuss the Structure and Transmission of Coronavirus. So, let’s get started.

Structure

They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense-single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases. ‘Coronavirus’ the name is derived from latin word ‘corona’ which means crown or halo referring to the characteristic appearance of a crown around the virus particles when viewed under 2-D TEM (transmission electron microscopy).

Transmission

Transmission (human to human) is primarily through close contacts via respiratory droplets generated by sneezing or coughing. The interaction of coronavirus spike protein with its complement host cell receptor is central in determining the tissue tropism, infectivity, and species range of the virus. SARS Coronavirus infects human cells by attaching to ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme) receptor.

Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus infection

In this article, we will discuss various Symptoms of the Novel Coronavirus infection. So, let’s get started.

Coronaviruses are enveloped non-segmented positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. Although most human coronavirus infections are mild, the epidemics of the two beta coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have caused more than 10000 cumulative cases in the past two decades, with mortality rates of 10% for SARS-CoV and 37% for MERS-CoV. In December 2019, a series of pneumonia cases of unknown cause emerged in Wuhan, Hubel, China, with clinical presentation greatly resembling pneumonia. Deep sequencing analysis from lower respiratory tract samples indicated a novel coronavirus, which was named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The following are the symptoms of coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV). Majority cases are being reported from China, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, and the USA.

Symptoms

Common symptoms

Fever

Cough

Shortness of Breath

Myalgia

Fatigue

Less common symptoms include:

Sputum production

Headache

Hemoptysis

Diarrhea

Dyspnea

According to CDC symptoms of 2019-nCov may appear in 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure.