In this article, we will discuss Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia. So, let’s get started.
Pre-eclampsia is diagnosed clinically by the development of hypertension, proteinuria, edema which may be associated with convulsions (eclampsia) or hemolysis, hepatic dysfunction, i.e. elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia (HELLP syndrome) even in the absence of significant hypertension. As the risk of eclampsia is real, BP control has to be much stricter in pregnant patients. Patient with mild eclampsia should be managed conservatively with limited physical activity. For women with severe eclampsia (BP>160/110 mmHg) should be treated with I.V. labetolol or hydralazine or nicardipine. Oral nifedipine and methyldopa can be used in patients with chronic hypertension in pregnancy (patients who are hypertensive become pregnant). Therefore, women with hypertension should be followed carefully because of increased risk to mother and fetus. The ACEs and ARBs should be avoided. The target blood pressure to be achieved is <140/90 mmHg by drug therapy.
Recommended drug (drugs of choice): Hydralazine, Labetolol, Nicardipine
Drugs to avoid: Nitroprusside, Trimethophan, Diuretics
In this article, we will discuss various Causes and Complications of Labour Pain. So, let’s get started.
Labour Pain is an emotional experience and involves both physiological and psychological mechanisms. It has two components, visceral pain which occurs during the early first stage and second stage of childbirth, and somatic pain which occurs during the late first stage and the second stage. The labour pain in the first stage is mediated by T10 to L1 spinal segments, whereas in the second stage is carried by T12 to L1, and S2 to S4 spinal segments. Various causes and complications of labour pain is given below:
Dilatation of cervix/distension of the lower uterine segments (greater sensory)
In this article, we will discuss some of the Terms used in Obstetrics Part-2. So, let’s get started.
Gestation: Duration of the pregnancy, usually 280 days or 40 weeks, marked from the first day of the last menstrual period.
Trimesters: Division of weeks of pregnancy first, 1-13 weeks; second, 14-17 weeks; third, 28-40 weeks.
EDC/EDD: “Expected date of confinement” (EDC) is an old-fashioned term indicating the date of a woman was expected to deliver and be confined. A more mordern term, estimated date of delivery (EDD), is now commonly used.
Parturient: A woman in labour
Pre-term labour: Labour that starts after the 20th but before the 37th week.
Term labour: Labour initiated after the 37th week of pregnancy but before the 42nd week.