obstetrics obstetrics and gynecology Physiotherapy Pregnancy

Complications of Pregnancy

In this article we will discuss various Complications of Pregnancy

In this article, we will discuss various Complications of Pregnancy. So, let’s get started.


1. Anemia:
• <10.5g/100 ml HB due to iron deficiency
• Pallor, dysnoea and oedema
• <6.5 g/100 ml (severe cases)
• Oral/parental therapy

2. Antepartum haemorrhage:
• From 24 weeks to birth
• Bleeding during labour is called as “intrapartum haemorrhage”
• Causes are placenta praevia and placental abruption

3. Breech positioning:
• External cephalic version predisposed by uterine anomalies oligohydramnios, fibroids, placenta praevia, fetal anomalies, poly hydraminos and multiple pregnancy.

4. Cardiac diseases:
• Risk of decomposition during labor

5. Diabetes mellitus:
• Dehydration, hyperglycaemia, ketosis, polyuria and polydipsia
• If untreated leads to acidosis, coma and death
• Macrosomic babies > 4.5 kg bw

6. Ectopic pregnancy:
• Implantation of the fertilized ovum in the fallopian tube at the junction of the tube with uterus
• If untreated leads to rupture and bleeding causing shock and maternal collapse.

7. Fibroids:
• Uterus hypertrophy

8. Genital herpes:
• Facial sores( HSV-1) and genital sores (HSV-2)

9. Neonatal herpes:
• Rare, may be life threatening
• Treatment: Acyclovir
• Prevention: By caesarean (mother to child)

10. Intrauterine deaths:
• Lack of fetal movements and heart sounds
• Cause: placental insufficiency/eclampsia

11. Fetal growth retardation
• Causes
– Progressive hypoxia
– Pre-eclamptic toxemia
– Placental separations/dysfunctions
– Infarctions

12. Multiple pregnancies:
• Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and premature labour

13. Oligohydramnios:
• Reduced amniotic fluid may cause fetal abnormalities (CTEV, torticollis, etc) and dry skin of the baby

14. Placenta praevia:
• Placenta implantation close to or over the cervix
Four degrees:
– Little encroachment on the lower segment (vaginal delivery possible)
– Part of placenta in the lower segment reaching the internal os (vaginal delivery possible)
– Over the internal os, but not completely on dilatation (vaginal delivery not allowed)
– Centrally over the internal os (vaginal delivery not allowed)

15. Pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH):
• Primi gravid and twin pregnant women are more prone for this
• Increased BP, oedema and proteinuria
• Pre-eclampsic toxemia > 90 mm Its) with proteinuria
• Help syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count)
• Eclampsia (convulsions during or within 7 days of pregnancy) is a fatal condition
• Bed rest, sedatives and diuretics used

16. Genetic disorders:
• Sickle cell anaemia
• Thalassaemias (alpha and beta)

17. Musculoskeletal complications:
• LBP, SI joint pain, PFM dysfunction, diastasis recti, carpel tunnel syndrome, oedema, postural deviations, adaptive shortening of soft tissues, tennis elbow, hand paraesthesia, etc.

18. HIV infection related complications.

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