Complications of Pregnancy

In this article, we will discuss various Complications of Pregnancy. So, let’s get started.


1. Anemia:
• <10.5g/100 ml HB due to iron deficiency
• Pallor, dysnoea and oedema
• <6.5 g/100 ml (severe cases)
• Oral/parental therapy

2. Antepartum haemorrhage:
• From 24 weeks to birth
• Bleeding during labour is called as “intrapartum haemorrhage”
• Causes are placenta praevia and placental abruption

3. Breech positioning:
• External cephalic version predisposed by uterine anomalies oligohydramnios, fibroids, placenta praevia, fetal anomalies, poly hydraminos and multiple pregnancy.

4. Cardiac diseases:
• Risk of decomposition during labor

5. Diabetes mellitus:
• Dehydration, hyperglycaemia, ketosis, polyuria and polydipsia
• If untreated leads to acidosis, coma and death
• Macrosomic babies > 4.5 kg bw

6. Ectopic pregnancy:
• Implantation of the fertilized ovum in the fallopian tube at the junction of the tube with uterus
• If untreated leads to rupture and bleeding causing shock and maternal collapse.

7. Fibroids:
• Uterus hypertrophy

8. Genital herpes:
• Facial sores( HSV-1) and genital sores (HSV-2)

9. Neonatal herpes:
• Rare, may be life threatening
• Treatment: Acyclovir
• Prevention: By caesarean (mother to child)

10. Intrauterine deaths:
• Lack of fetal movements and heart sounds
• Cause: placental insufficiency/eclampsia

11. Fetal growth retardation
• Causes
– Progressive hypoxia
– Pre-eclamptic toxemia
– Placental separations/dysfunctions
– Infarctions

12. Multiple pregnancies:
• Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and premature labour

13. Oligohydramnios:
• Reduced amniotic fluid may cause fetal abnormalities (CTEV, torticollis, etc) and dry skin of the baby

14. Placenta praevia:
• Placenta implantation close to or over the cervix
Four degrees:
– Little encroachment on the lower segment (vaginal delivery possible)
– Part of placenta in the lower segment reaching the internal os (vaginal delivery possible)
– Over the internal os, but not completely on dilatation (vaginal delivery not allowed)
– Centrally over the internal os (vaginal delivery not allowed)

15. Pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH):
• Primi gravid and twin pregnant women are more prone for this
• Increased BP, oedema and proteinuria
• Pre-eclampsic toxemia > 90 mm Its) with proteinuria
• Help syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count)
• Eclampsia (convulsions during or within 7 days of pregnancy) is a fatal condition
• Bed rest, sedatives and diuretics used

16. Genetic disorders:
• Sickle cell anaemia
• Thalassaemias (alpha and beta)

17. Musculoskeletal complications:
• LBP, SI joint pain, PFM dysfunction, diastasis recti, carpel tunnel syndrome, oedema, postural deviations, adaptive shortening of soft tissues, tennis elbow, hand paraesthesia, etc.

18. HIV infection related complications.

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