Advertisements
Advertisements

Thyroidectomy

In this article, we will briefly discuss Thyroidectomy. So, let’s get started.

Thyroidectomy

It is the partial or complete removal of the thyroid gland.

Types

  • Lobectomy and isthmusectomy
  • Bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy
  • Near-total thyroidectomCausesy
  • Total thyroidectomy

Causes

  • Carcinoma
  • Large nodular thyroid compressing the airway

Complications

  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis
  • Hemorrhage
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Infection

 

Advertisements
Advertisements

Gastrectomy

In this article, we will discuss the general points about Gastrectomy. So, let’s get started.

Gastrectomy

  • It is defined as the removal of the whole or part of the stomach.
  • It is mostly indicated for stomach/duodenal ulcers; however, recently it is used primarily for gastric adenocarcinomas, primary gastric lymphomas or leiomyosarcomas.
  • Gastrectomy is either partial, total or sleeve.
  • Antrectomy, a limited form of gastrectomy in which the antrum(part of the stomach) is removed.
  • Gastrectomy can either be performed via open surgery or laparoscopic surgery.
  • Risks include acid reflux, diarrhea, gastric dumping syndrome, infection, internal bleeding (hemorrhage), leakage from the site of incision (operation), nausea, vomiting, stomach acid leaking into the esophagus causing scarring, narrowing or constriction (stricture), vitamin deficiency, weight loss, dyspnea, pneumonia or damage to the adjacent structures.
  • Vitamin and mineral supplementation is necessary post gastrectomy.

 

Stages of Osteosarcoma

In this article, we will discuss the various Stages of Osteosarcoma. So, let’s get started.

Firstly, we will grade the tumor (cancer) in terms of histopathology (cancerous cells).

GX: The tumor grade cannot be identified

G1: The cancer cells are well differentiated (low-grade)

G2: The cancer cells are moderately differentiated (high-grade)

G3: The cancer cells are poorly differentiated (high-grade)

Stages

Stage IA: The tumor is low grade or cannot be graded and the size is 8 cm or smaller. It has not spread to any lymph node or other parts of the body.

Stage IB: The tumor is low grade or cannot be graded and the size of the tumor is larger than 8 cm or there are more than 1 separate tumors in the primary bone site. It has not spread to any lymph node or other parts of the body.

Stage IIA: The tumor is high-grade and the size is 8 cm or smaller. It has not spread to any lymph node or to other parts of the body.

Stage IIB: The tumor is high-grade and the size is larger than 8 cm. It has not spread to any lymph node or to other parts of the body.

Stage III: There are multiple high-grade tumors in the primary bone site, but has not spread to any lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.

Stage IVA: The tumor is of any size or grade and has spread to the lung(s).

Stage IVB: The tumor is of any size or grade and has spread to the lymph nodes or the tumor is of any size or grade and has spread to another bone or organ besides the lung.

(There are no stage grouping for primary bone cancer in the spine or pelvis)

Original and primary source: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Eighth Edition (2017), published by Springer International Publishing

What is CABG (Coronary artery bypass graft)

In this article, we will discuss What is CABG (Coronary artery bypass graft)? So, let’s gets started.

CABG (Coronary artery bypass graft)

CABG (Coronary artery bypass graft) is a surgical procedure performed for the treatment of coronary artery disease (narrowing of coronary arteries) in order to restore normal blood flow in the obstructed coronary artery.

There are two main approaches, one in which the left internal thoracic artery is diverted to the left anterior ascending branch of the coronary artery and in another approach, the great saphenous vein is used as a graft whose one end is attached to the aorta and another end is attached to the obstructed artery thereby bypassing the obstruction and restoring blood flow.

Types of coronary artery bypass grafting (only names)

  1. Traditional CABG
  2. Off-pump CABG
  3. Minimal Invasive Direct CABG

Arthroplasty

In this video article we will have a close look at Arthroplasty with an example of Total Knee Replacement. So let’s get started.

Definition

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure for the reconstruction or replacement of a joint. It’s primary motive is to restore the function of the joint.

Here is an visually presented example of Total Knee Replacement or Knee Arthroplasty

PT Master Guide
%d bloggers like this:
Skip to toolbar