Pathogenesis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

In this article, we will discuss the Pathogenesis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. So, let’s get started.


The pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (idiopathic or inherited) is related to deficiency of, or antibodies to, a metalloprotease that cleaves vWF and ADAMTS 13 respectively. Non-cleavage of large vWF molecules results in their persistence which leads to platelet aggregation and adhesion. The manifestations are as a result of localized platelet thrombi and fibrin deposition in microvasculature. Arterioles are filled with hyaline material (fibrin and platelets) and similar material may also be seen beneath the endothelium of the involved vessels. Immunofluorescence studies have shown deposition of immunoglobulins and complement in arterioles indicating an immunologic origin. Microaneurysm of arterioles may also be seen.


Tumor Markers

In this article, we will discuss Tumor Markers. So, let’s get started.

Tumor Markers

A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine or body tissues/fluids that are used in oncology in order to detect the presence of cancer. There are different tumor markers present and their elevated levels are suggestive of a particular disease or cancer.

Following are a few examples of Tumor markers and associated cancer:

  • CA15-3: Breast cancer, cancers of prostate, lung, and ovary.
  • CA19-9: Pancreatic cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, and bile duct.
  • CA27-29: Breast cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver.
  • NSE: Neuroblastoma or small cell lung cancer.
  • CA125: Ovarian cancer, cancers of uterus, cervix, pancreas, liver, colon, breast, lung, and digestive tract.
  • Immunoglobin: Lymphoma and Leukemia
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen): Colorectal cancer
  • AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein): Liver, ovary, or testicular cancer or germ-cell tumor
  • Tumor M2-PK: Colorectal cancer
  • Thymidine kinase: Lung cancer
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein: Glioma, astrocytoma.
  • PSA (Prostate-specific antigen): Prostate cancer



Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI)

In this article, we will discuss the Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI). So, let’s get started.


Type 1 – Spontaneous MI – It is related to ischemia due to a primary coronary event such as plaque rupture, ulceration, fissuring, erosion or dissection resulting in coronary thrombosis

Type 2 – Supply/Demand mismatch – MI secondary to ischemia due to either increased oxygen demand or decreased oxygen supply e.g. coronary artery spasm, coronary embolism, anemia, arrhythmia, hypertension or hypotension.

Type 3 – Suspected MI-related death – Sudden unexpected cardiac death often with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction.

Type 4a – PCI related MI (percutaneous coronary intervention) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by symptoms along with electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after PCI (MI associated with PCI).

Type 4b – Stent thrombosis – Confirmed stent thrombosis in the context of ischemia and dynamic cardiac biomarkers changes (MI associated with stent thrombosis).

Type 5 – CABG related MI (coronary artery bypass graft) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after CABG (MI associated with CABG).