In this article, we will discuss Tumor Markers. So, let’s get started.
A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine or body tissues/fluids that are used in oncology in order to detect the presence of cancer. There are different tumor markers present and their elevated levels are suggestive of a particular disease or cancer.
Following are a few examples of Tumor markers and associated cancer:
- CA15-3: Breast cancer, cancers of prostate, lung, and ovary.
- CA19-9: Pancreatic cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, and bile duct.
- CA27-29: Breast cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver.
- NSE: Neuroblastoma or small cell lung cancer.
- CA125: Ovarian cancer, cancers of uterus, cervix, pancreas, liver, colon, breast, lung, and digestive tract.
- Immunoglobin: Lymphoma and Leukemia
- CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen): Colorectal cancer
- AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein): Liver, ovary, or testicular cancer or germ-cell tumor
- Tumor M2-PK: Colorectal cancer
- Thymidine kinase: Lung cancer
- Glial fibrillary acidic protein: Glioma, astrocytoma.
- PSA (Prostate-specific antigen): Prostate cancer
In this article, we will discuss the Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI). So, let’s get started.
Type 1 – Spontaneous MI – It is related to ischemia due to a primary coronary event such as plaque rupture, ulceration, fissuring, erosion or dissection resulting in coronary thrombosis
Type 2 – Supply/Demand mismatch – MI secondary to ischemia due to either increased oxygen demand or decreased oxygen supply e.g. coronary artery spasm, coronary embolism, anemia, arrhythmia, hypertension or hypotension.
Type 3 – Suspected MI-related death – Sudden unexpected cardiac death often with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction.
Type 4a – PCI related MI (percutaneous coronary intervention) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by symptoms along with electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after PCI (MI associated with PCI).
Type 4b – Stent thrombosis – Confirmed stent thrombosis in the context of ischemia and dynamic cardiac biomarkers changes (MI associated with stent thrombosis).
Type 5 – CABG related MI (coronary artery bypass graft) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after CABG (MI associated with CABG).