Signs of Respiratory Muscle Paralysis and Impending Respiratory Failure

In this article, we will discuss the Signs of Respiratory Muscle Paralysis and Impending Respiratory Failure. So, let’s get started.

Signs

1. Signs of Respiratory Muscle Paralysis

An increase in respiratory rate

Inability to count up to 20 in one breath

Use of accessory respiratory muscles

Suppressed cough

Paradoxical inward movements of abdomen during inspiration

2. Signs of impending respiratory failure

Decreasing forced vital capacity

Declining maximal respiratory pressures

Hypoxemia on ABG

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Tumor Markers

In this article, we will discuss Tumor Markers. So, let’s get started.

Tumor Markers

A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine or body tissues/fluids that are used in oncology in order to detect the presence of cancer. There are different tumor markers present and their elevated levels are suggestive of a particular disease or cancer.

Following are a few examples of Tumor markers and associated cancer:

  • CA15-3: Breast cancer, cancers of prostate, lung, and ovary.
  • CA19-9: Pancreatic cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, and bile duct.
  • CA27-29: Breast cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver.
  • NSE: Neuroblastoma or small cell lung cancer.
  • CA125: Ovarian cancer, cancers of uterus, cervix, pancreas, liver, colon, breast, lung, and digestive tract.
  • Immunoglobin: Lymphoma and Leukemia
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen): Colorectal cancer
  • AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein): Liver, ovary, or testicular cancer or germ-cell tumor
  • Tumor M2-PK: Colorectal cancer
  • Thymidine kinase: Lung cancer
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein: Glioma, astrocytoma.
  • PSA (Prostate-specific antigen): Prostate cancer

 

 

Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI)

In this article, we will discuss the Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI). So, let’s get started.

Classification

Type 1 – Spontaneous MI – It is related to ischemia due to a primary coronary event such as plaque rupture, ulceration, fissuring, erosion or dissection resulting in coronary thrombosis

Type 2 – Supply/Demand mismatch – MI secondary to ischemia due to either increased oxygen demand or decreased oxygen supply e.g. coronary artery spasm, coronary embolism, anemia, arrhythmia, hypertension or hypotension.

Type 3 – Suspected MI-related death – Sudden unexpected cardiac death often with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction.

Type 4a – PCI related MI (percutaneous coronary intervention) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by symptoms along with electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after PCI (MI associated with PCI).

Type 4b – Stent thrombosis – Confirmed stent thrombosis in the context of ischemia and dynamic cardiac biomarkers changes (MI associated with stent thrombosis).

Type 5 – CABG related MI (coronary artery bypass graft) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after CABG (MI associated with CABG).