Tumor Markers

In this article, we will discuss Tumor Markers. So, let’s get started.

Tumor Markers

A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine or body tissues/fluids that are used in oncology in order to detect the presence of cancer. There are different tumor markers present and their elevated levels are suggestive of a particular disease or cancer.

Following are a few examples of Tumor markers and associated cancer:

  • CA15-3: Breast cancer, cancers of prostate, lung, and ovary.
  • CA19-9: Pancreatic cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, and bile duct.
  • CA27-29: Breast cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver.
  • NSE: Neuroblastoma or small cell lung cancer.
  • CA125: Ovarian cancer, cancers of uterus, cervix, pancreas, liver, colon, breast, lung, and digestive tract.
  • Immunoglobin: Lymphoma and Leukemia
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen): Colorectal cancer
  • AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein): Liver, ovary, or testicular cancer or germ-cell tumor
  • Tumor M2-PK: Colorectal cancer
  • Thymidine kinase: Lung cancer
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein: Glioma, astrocytoma.
  • PSA (Prostate-specific antigen): Prostate cancer

 

 

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Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI)

In this article, we will discuss the Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI). So, let’s get started.

Classification

Type 1 – Spontaneous MI – It is related to ischemia due to a primary coronary event such as plaque rupture, ulceration, fissuring, erosion or dissection resulting in coronary thrombosis

Type 2 – Supply/Demand mismatch – MI secondary to ischemia due to either increased oxygen demand or decreased oxygen supply e.g. coronary artery spasm, coronary embolism, anemia, arrhythmia, hypertension or hypotension.

Type 3 – Suspected MI-related death – Sudden unexpected cardiac death often with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction.

Type 4a – PCI related MI (percutaneous coronary intervention) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by symptoms along with electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after PCI (MI associated with PCI).

Type 4b – Stent thrombosis – Confirmed stent thrombosis in the context of ischemia and dynamic cardiac biomarkers changes (MI associated with stent thrombosis).

Type 5 – CABG related MI (coronary artery bypass graft) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after CABG (MI associated with CABG).