In this article, we will discuss Panobinostat (Mechanism of Action). So, let’s get started.
Mechanism of Action
Panobinostat is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that inhibits the enzymatic activity of HDACs at nanomolar concentrations. HDACs catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from the lysine residues of histones and some non-histone proteins. Inhibition of HDAC activity results in increased acetylation of histone proteins, an epigenetic alteration that results in a relaxing of chromatin, leading to transcriptional activation. In vitro, panobinostat caused the accumulation of acetylated histones and other proteins, inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis of some transformed cells. Increased levels of acetylated histones were observed in xenografts from mice that were treated with panobinostat. Panobinostat shows more cytotoxicity towards tumor cells compared
to normal cells.
Panobinostat may prolong cardiac ventricular repolarization (QT interval). In the randomized multiple myeloma trial, QTc prolongation with values between 451 msec to 480 msec occurred in 10.8% of Panobinostat treated patients. Events with values of 481 msec to 500 msec occurred in 1.3% of Panobinostat treated patients. A maximum QTcF increase from baseline of between 31 msec and 60 msec was reported in 14.5% of Panobinostat treated patients. A maximum QTcF increase from baseline of >60 msec was reported in 0.8% of Panobinostat treated patients. No episodes of QTcF prolongation >500 msec have been reported with the dose of 20 mg Panobinostat in the randomized multiple myeloma trial conducted in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone. Pooled clinical data from over 500 patients treated with single agent Panobinostat in multiple indications and at different dose levels has shown that the incidence of CTC Grade 3 QTc prolongation (QTcF >500 msec) was approximately 1% overall and 5% or more at a dose of 60 mg or higher.