Avelumab (Mechanism of Action)

In this article we will discuss Avelumab (Mechanism of Action). So, let’s get started.

Avelumab is a programmed death ligandl (PD-L1) blocking antibody. Avelumab-is a human IgG1 lambda monoclonal antibody produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells and has a molecular weight of approximately 147 kDa.

Avelumab (BAVENCIO®) Injection for intravenous use is a sterile, preservative-free, non-pyrogenic, clear, colorless to slightly yellow solution. Each single-dose vial contains 200 mg avelumab in 10 mL (20 mg/mL). Each mL contains 20 mg avelumab, D-mannitol (51 mg), glacial acetic acid (0.6 mg), polysorbate 20 (0.5 mg), sodium hydroxide (0.3 mg), and Water for Injection. The pH range of the solution is 5.0 – 5.6.

Mechanism of Action

PD-L1 may be expressed on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells and can contribute to the inhibition of the anti-tumor immune response in the tumor microenvironment. Binding of PD-L1 to the PD-1 and B7.1 receptors found on T cells and antigen presenting cells suppresses cytotoxic T-cell activity, T-cell proliferation, and cytokine production. Avelumab binds PD-L1 and blocks the interaction between PD-LI and its receptors PD-1 and B7.1. This interaction releases the inhibitory effects of PD-L1 on the immune response resulting in the restoration of immune responses, including anti-tumor immune responses. Avelumab has also been shown to induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro. In syngeneic mouse tumor models, blocking PD-L1 activity resulted in decreased tumor growth.

Pharmacodynamics

Based on exposure efficacy and exposure safety relationships, there are no expected clinically meaningful differences in the safety or efficacy of Avelumab (BAVENCIO®) administered every 2 weeks at 800 mg or 10 mg/kg in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, in patients with urothelial carcinoma and in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

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