In this article, we will discuss the Clinical Features of Aplastic Anemia. So, let’s get started.
The onset of aplastic anaemia is usual
insidious. The most cOmmon presenting features are due to:
1. Symptoms and signs of anaemia: The symptoms include pallor weakness, fatigue, breathlessness on exertion. There is generalised pallor. If anaemia is severe, tachycardia and murmurs associated with high flow rates (haemic munnurs) may be present. It is hereby stressed that in spite of severe anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy are absent.
2. Symptoms and signs of thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia produces bleeding from the skin (petechiae, ecchymosis), nose (epistaxis), gums (gum bleeding), vagina (menorrhagia) or gastrointestinal (haematemesis or malena). There may be conjunctival haemorrhages.
3. Symptoms and signs due to neutropenia: Neutropenia predisposes to severe bacterial infection. Sometimes, infection may be presenting feature and fever may be the only symptom without any localising sign. Bacterial and fungal infections of the throat, pneumonias, erythroderma and gastrointestinal infections occur commonly.
4. Café au lait spots and short stature suggest Fanconi’s anaemia; peculiar nails and leukoplakia suggest dyskeratosis congenita.