Causes and Complications of Labour Pain

In this article, we will discuss various Causes and Complications of Labour Pain. So, let’s get started.

Labour Pain is an emotional experience and involves both physiological and psychological mechanisms. It has two components, visceral pain which occurs during the early first stage and second stage of childbirth, and somatic pain which occurs during the late first stage and the second stage. The labour pain in the first stage is mediated by T10 to L1 spinal segments, whereas in the second stage is carried by T12 to L1, and S2 to S4 spinal segments. Various causes and complications of labour pain is given below:

Causes

  • Dilatation of cervix/distension of the lower uterine segments (greater sensory)
  • Ischemia of the myometrium and cervix
  • Pressure on the fundus and body of cervix
  • Inflammatory changes of uterine muscles
  • Reflex contraction cervix (fear, tension, pain cycle)

Complications

  • Failure to progress
  • Contracted pelvis
  • Fetal distress
  • Placental abruption
  • Maternal distress
  • Multiple births
  • Malpresentation
  • Perineal trauma
  • Breech presentation
  • Retained placenta
  • Prolapsed or presentation of the cord
  • Placenta accrete (life threatening)
  • Inco-ordinate uterine cavity
  • Knots of the umblical cord
  • Hemorrhage
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