Causes of Aplastic Anemia

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Aplastic Anemia. So, let’s get started.

Causes

Inherited

  • Fanconi’s anemia
  • Diamond-Blackfen syndrome
  • Reticular dysgenesis (dyskeratosis congenita)

Acquired

A. Idiopathic (primary) probably autoimmune

B. Secondary

i. Diseases, e.g. SLE

ii. Drugs (direct cytotoxicity, idiosyncratic reactions)

  • Cytotoxic drugs, e.g. alkylating agents, antimetabolites etc.
  • Antibiotics, e.g. sulphonamides, chloramphenicol
  • Antirheumatic drugs, e.g. penicillamine, gold, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, ibuprofen
  • Antithyroid drugs
  • Anticonvulsants (hydantoins, carbamazepine etc)
  • Immunosuppressants, e.g. azathioprine, busulphan, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, vinblastine, 6-mercaptopurine

iii. Chemicals

  • Heavy metals, e.g. gold, arsenic, bismuth, mercury
  • Industrial solvents
  • Benzene-containing solvents, e.g. kerosene, carbontetrachloride
  • Insecticide, e.g. organophosphorus, carbamates, DDT (chlorinated hydrocarbon)

iv. Irradiation

  • Ionising radiation (radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear power station)

v. Viruses

  • Hepatitis viruses (post-hepatitis)
  • Epstein-Barr viruses, parvovirus B19 (aplastic crisis)
  • HIV

vi. Pregnancy

vii. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

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