Advertisements
Advertisements

Complications of Acute Dysentery

In this article, we will discuss the Complications of Acute Dysentery. So, let’s get started.

Complications

Acute dysentery is an acute inflammation of the large intestine characterised by diarrhea with blood and mucus in the stool. Its causes a re bacillary (Shigella spp., enterohaemorrhagic E.coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) or amoebic infection.

Complications of Acute Dysentery are discussed below:

A. Intestinal

  • Toxic megacolon
  • Rectal prolapse
  • Intestinal perforations

B. Bacteremia

C. Metabolic/toxic

  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyponatremia and dehydration
  • Toxic encephalopathy

D. Blood

  • Hemolytic uremia syndrome

E. Joint

  • Reactive arthritis (Reiter’s syndrome)

Advertisements
Advertisements

Clinical Features and Investigations of Acute Diarrhea

In this article, we will discuss the Clinical Features and Investigations of Acute Diarrhea. So, let’s get started.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Watery stools
  • Blood in the stool (hematochezia)
  • Excessive thirst

Signs of dehydration may be present

  • Patient irritable
  • Weak pulse, low BP
  • Depressed fontanelle
  • Dry pinched facies
  • Sunken eyeballs
  • Dryness of mouth, tongue, mucous membrane
  • Loss of skin turgor

Investigations

  • Stool examination for leukocytes, ova, parasites, blood and pus cells, etc
  • Stool for fecal lactiferin: It is a sensitive marker of fecal leukocytes, indicates inflammatory diarrhea. It is estimated by ELISA and latex agglutination test
  • Stool immunoassay for bacterial toxins (c.difficile), viral antigen (rota virus) and protozoal antigens (Giardia, E.histolytica)
  • Stool culture for isolation of the infective agent, i.e. enterohemorrhagic and other types of E.coli, Vibrio species and Versinia
  • Complete hemogram
  • Blood biochemistry, e.g. urea, creatinine, electrolytes
  • Blood culture
  • Sigmoidoscopy with biopsies and upper endoscopy with duodenal aspirates and biopsy if indicated
  • Abdominal X-ray or CT scan

Causes of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed. So, let’s get started.

Causes

1. Peptic ulcer (35-50%) associated with NSAIDs and H.pylori

2. Acute gastric erosion (about 20%), e.g. NSAIDs, alcohol induced, stress-induced ulceration

3. Esophageal varices (5-10%), i.e. liver disease, portal hypertension

4. Erosive esophagitis (5-10%) usually associated with hiatus hernia

5. Mallory-Weiss tear (5%), i.e. laceration of gastroesophageal junction

6. Vascular (angiomatus) malformations (5%)

7. Cancer of esophagus or stomach (2%)

8. Aortic graft (aorto-duodenal fistula- 0.2%)

9. Miscellaneous (rare), i.e.bleeding disorders, corrosive injury, post-sclerotherapy or ligation ulcers.

Causes of Vomiting

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Vomiting. So, let’s get started.

Causes

1. Gastrointestinal

(a) Mechanical Obstruction

  • Gastric outlet obstruction following peptic ulcer or malignancy
  • Small intestinal obstruction, e.g. volvolus, adhesions, malignancy

(b) Motility disorders

  • Gastroparesis due to diabetes, drugs, post-vagotomy, and idiopathic

(c) Inflammation

  • Bacterial food poisoning
  • Appendicitis
  • Acute pancreatitis

(d) Gastrointestinal irritants

  • Alcohol
  • Drugs, e.g. NSAIDs, oral antibiotics

2. Hepatobiliary

  • Hepatitis A and B
  • Portal hypertension
  • Acute cholecystitis
  • Gallstones

3. CNS disorders

(a) Vestibular causes

  • Labyrinthitis
  • Meniere’s disease
  • Motion sickness

(b) Raised intracranial pressure

  • CNS tumors
  • Subdural/Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Hydrocephalus, meningitis, encephalitis

4. Cardiovascular

(c) Migraine

  • Acute MI, congestive heart failure

5. Renal

  • Renal failure

6. Endocrinal

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypo and hyperthyroidism
  • Thyrotoxic crisis
  • Adrenal crisis

7. Systemic causes

  • Infection
  • Pregnancy

8. Psychogenic

9. Radiation therapy

10. Bulimia

  • Psychiatric disorders

11. Postoperative

%d bloggers like this: