In this article, we will discuss Nivolumab (Mechanism of Action). So, let’s get started.
Nivolumab is a programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blocking antibody. Nivolumab is an IgG4 kappa immunoglobulin that has a calculated molecular mass of 146 kDa. It is expressed in a recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line.
Nivolumab (OPDIVO) is a sterile, preservative-free, non-pyrogenic, clear to opalescent, colorless to pale-yellow liquid that may contain light (few) particles.
Nivolumab (OPDIVO) injection for intravenous use is supplied in single-dose vials. Each mL of Nivolumab (OPDIVO) solution contains nivolumab 10 mg, mannitol (30 mg), pentetic acid (0.008 mg), polysorbate 80 (0.2 mg), sodium chloride (2.92 mg), sodium citrate dihydrate (5.88 mg), and Water for Injection, USP. May contain hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust pH to 6.
Mechanism of Action
Binding of the PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. to the PD-1 receptor found on T cells, inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Upregulation of PD-1 ligands occurs in some tumors and signaling through this pathway can contribute to inhibition of active T-cell immune surveillance of tumors. Nivolumab is a human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L 2, releasing PD-1 pathway-mediated inhibition of the immune response, including the anti-tumor immune response. In syngencic mouse tumor models, blocking PD-1 activity resulted in decreased tumor growth.
Combined nivolumab (anti-PD-1) and ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) mediated inhibition results in enhanced T-cell function that is greater than the effects of either antibody alone, and results in improved anti-tumor responses in metastatic melanoma and advanced RCC. In murine syngeneic tumor models, dual blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 resulted in increased anti-tumor activity.