In this article, we will discuss Bevacizumab (Mechanism of Action). So, let’s get started.
Bevacizumab (Avastin®) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody that binds to and inhibits the biologic activity of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in in vitro and in vivo assay systems. Bevacizumab contains human framework regions and the complementarity-determining regions of a murine antibody that binds to VEGF. Bevacizumab (Avastin®) has an
approximate molecular weight of 149 kD. Bevacizumab is produced in a mammalian cell (Chinese Hamster Ovary) expression system in a nutrient medium containing the antibiotic gentamicin. Gentamicin is not detectable in the final product.
Bevacizumab (Avastin®) is a clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to pale brown, sterile, pH 6.2 solution for intravenous infusion. Bevacizumab (Avastin®) is supplied in 100 mg and 400 mg preservative-free, single-use vials to deliver 4 mL or 16 mL of Avastin (25 mg/mL). The 100 mg product is formulated in 240 mg α,α-trehalose dihydrate, 23.2 mg sodium phosphate (monobasic, monohydrate), 4.8 mg sodium phosphate (dibasic, anhydrous), 1.6 mg polysorbate 20. and Water for Injection, USP. The 400 mg product is formulated in 960 mg α,α-trehalose dihydrate, 92.8 mg sodium phosphate (monobasic, monohydrate), 19.2 mg sodium phosphate (dibasic, anhydrous). 6.4 mg polysorbate 20, and Water for Injection, USP.
Mechanism of Action
Bevacizumab binds VEGF and prevents the interaction of VEGF to its receptors (Flt-1 and KDR) on the surface of endothelial cells. The interaction of VEGF with its receptors leads to endothelial cell proliferation and new blood vessel formation in in vitro models of angiogenesis. Administration of bevacizumab to xenotransplant models of colon cancer in nude (athymic) mice caused reduction of microvascular growth and inhibition of metastatic disease progression.
The pharmacokinetic profile of bevacizumab was assessed using an assay that measures total serum bevacizumab concentrations (ie the assay did not distinguish between free bevacizumab and bevacizumab bound to VEGF ligand). Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis of 491 patients who received 1 to 20 mg/kg of Bevacizumab (Avastin®) weekly, every 2 weeks, or every 3 weeks, the estimated half-life of bevacizumab was approximately 20 days (range 11-50 days). The predicted time to reach steady state was 100 days. The accumulation ratio following a dose of 10 mg/kg of
bevacizumab every 2 weeks was 2.8.
The clearance of bevacizumab varied by body weight, gender, and tumor burden. After correcting for body weight, males had a higher bevacizumab clearance (0.262 L/day vs. 0.207 L/day) and a larger Vc (3.25 L vs. 2.66 L) than females. Patients with higher tumor burden (at or above median value of tumor surface area) had a higher bevacizumab clearance (0.249 L/day vs. 0.199 L/day) than patients with tumor burdens below the median. In Study 1, there was no evidence of lesser efficacy (hazard ratio for overall survival) in males or patients with higher tumor burden treated with Bevacizumab (Avastin®) as compared to females and patients with low tumor burden. The relationship between bevacizumab
exposure and clinical outcomes has not been explored.