In this article, we will discuss the Clinical Features of Hypocalcaemia. So, let’s get started.
The clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic state to life-threatening features like convulsions, tetany, laryngeal spasm, depending on the level of ionized calcium. The neuromuscular and neurological manifestations of hypocalcaemia are due to enhanced neuromuscular excitability due to lowered threshold; and common features include tetany,perioral paraesthesias, numbness, muscle cramps and fasciculations.
Severe hypocalcaemia can cause mental features (irritability, depression, psychosis), seizures, myopathy and heart failure. The QT interval is prolonged on ECG and arrhythmia can occur. In some cases, there may be increased intracranial pressure including papilloedema. Respiratory arrest can occur.
Latent tetany (absence of signs and
symptoms of tetany) is diagnosed by provocative tests:
1. Trousseau’s sign: Raising the BP above systolic level by inflating the sphygmomanometer cuff, produces
typical carpopedal spasms within 3-5
2. Chvostek’s sign: A tap at the facial nerve in front of tragus at the angle of jaw produces facial twitchings within 3 minutes.