Signs and Symptoms of Left Ventricular Failure

In this article, we will discuss the Signs and Symptoms of Left Ventricular Failure. So, let’s get started.

Signs and Symptoms

1. Symptoms and signs due to rise in left ventricular end-diastolic volume or pressure and subsequent rise in left atrial pressure

  • Tachycardia
  • Gallop rhythm
  • Murmurs depending on the cause
  • Low volume pulse or pulsus alternans
  • Low BP
  • Heaving apex beat

2. Symptoms and signs due to pulmonary venous hypertension, pulmonary congestion/edema

  • Dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, tachypnea
  • Cough, hemoptysis (pinkish, frothy sputum)
  • Basal pulmonary crackles and rales
  • Central cyanosis
  • Hydrothorax/pleural effusion
  • Cheyne-Stokes respiration

3. Symptoms and signs due to low cardiac output leading to hypoperfusion and hypoxia of various organs

  • Oliguria and nocturia
  • Cerebral symptoms, e.g. confusion, difficulty in concentration, anxiety, insomnia, etc
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Peripheral cyanosis
  • Pale, cold extremities
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