Clinical Presentations of Pituitary Apoplexy

In this article, we will discuss the Clinical Presentations of Pituitary Apoplexy. So, let’s get started.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Headache, sudden and severe retro-orbital and frontal pain
  • Decreased visual acquity and visual field defects
  • Opthalmoplegia, ptosis, and pupilary defects
  • Nausea, vomiting, headache, alteration in the level of consciousness, e.g. lethargy, stupor, and coma
  • Hemiplegia
  • Acute adrenal insufficiency
  • Gonadal dysfunction
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Hypofunction of thyroid
  • Fever, anosmia, CSF rhinorrhea, and facial pain, respiratory and cardiac rhythm disturbances

Structure involved/compressed

  • Sudden enlargement of tumor mass
  • Optic nerve
  • The III,IV, and VI cranial nerve compression
  • Meningeal irritation (disruption of dura or leakage of blood into subarachnoid space)
  • Internal carotid artery
  • Compression of corticotrophs (loss of ACTH)
  • Compression of gonadotrophs (loss of LH, FSH)
  • Compression of pituitary stalk
  • Compression of thyrotrophs
  • Nonspecific, noncompressive

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