In this article, we will discuss the Diseases Associated with Acute Nephritic Syndrome. So, let’s get started.
A. Primary glomerular diseases
- Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
- Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis
- Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (rapidly progressive crescentic)
B. Secondary to systemic diseases
- Post-infectious glomerulonephritis- bacterial, e.g. post-streptococcal, SABE, viral, e.g. HBV
- Systemic collagen vascular diseases- Systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic vasculitis, e.g. PAN, Wegener’s granulomatosis (ANCA small vessel vasculitis)
- Hematological diseases- Henoch-Schönlein purpura, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, cryoglobulinemia, serum sickness
- Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) diseases- Goodpasture’s syndrome
- Guillain-Barré syndrome
- DPT vaccination, IgA nephropathy
In this article, we will discuss the Pathology of Acute Nephritic Syndrome. So, let’s get started.
The hallmark of acute nephritic syndrome is glomerular inflammation (hypercellularity) and the classical pathologic correlation of the nephritic syndrome is proliferative glomerulonephritis. The proliferation of glomerular cells is due to infiltration of the glomerular tuft by neutrophils and monocytes with subsequent proliferation of endothelial and mesangial cells (endocapillary proliferation). In most severe form, nephritic syndrome is associated with acute inflammation of most of the glomeruli (more than 50%), e.g. acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. In less severe form, fewer than 50% of the glomeruli may be involved, i.e. focal proliferative glomerulonephritis. In its mildest form, cellular proliferation is just confined to the mesangium, i.e. mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis.