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Causes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. So, let’s get started.

Causes

Systemic insults (indirect injury)

  • Trauma, head injury
  • Shock, sepsis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Repeated blood transfusion
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
  • Burns
  • Drugs, e.g. opiates, aspirin, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, nitrofurantoin, amiodarone, paraquat
  • Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass

Pulmonary insults (direct injury)

  • Aspirations of gastric contents
  • Embolism, e.g. thrombus, fat, air, and amniotic fluid
  • Miliary tuberculosis
  • Diffuse pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, cryptogenic pneumonia
  • Near drowning
  • Toxic gas inhalation, e.g. CO, NO2, PH3, chlorine, SO2, ammonia, hyperbaric O2
  • Lung contusion
  • Radiation exposure
  • High altitude pulmonary edema
  • Lung re-expansion or re-perfusion

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Diagnostic Criteria for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

In this article, we will discuss about Diagnostic Criteria for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. So, let’s get started.

Diagnostic Criteria

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is defined as an acute hypoxic respiratory failure characterized by extensive bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, rapid onset dyspnea, refractory hypoxemia, decreased lung compliance, and respiratory failure.

It is considered a medical emergency and carries a high mortality rate (40-60%).

Following are the diagnostic criteria  for ARDS:

1. Impaired oxygenation PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200 mmHg (mild (200-300 mmHg, moderate 100-200 mmHg, and severe <100 mmHg by Berlin definition)

2. Normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) <18 mm with normal left atrial pressure.

3. Chest x-ray showing diffuse bilateral lung infiltrates.

Causes of ARDS

In this article we will discuss about Various Causes of ARDS. So let’s get started.

Causes

Direct Lung Injury

Pneumonia

Aspiration of Gastric Contents

Pulmonary Contusion

Fat Embolism

Reperfusion injury

O2 Toxicity

Vasculitis

Indirect Lung Injury

Sepsis

Severe Trauma eg. Burns

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Pancreatitis

Multiple Transfusions

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