Oxaprozin (Clinical Pharmacology)

In this article, we will discuss Oxaprozin (Clinical Pharmacology). So, let’s get started.

Clinical Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics: Oxaprozin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties in animal models. The mechanism of action of Oxaprozin, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Oxaprozin is 95% absorbed after oral administration. Food may reduce the rate of absorption of oxaprozin, but the extent of absorption is unchanged. Antacids do not significantly affect the extent and rate of Oxaprozin absorption.
Distribution: In dose proportionality studies utilizing 600, 1200 and 1800 mg doses, the
pharmacokinetics of oxaprozin in healthy subjects demonstrated nonlinear kinetics of both the total and unbound drug in opposite directions, i.e., dose exposure related increase in the clearance of total drug and decrease in the clearance of the unbound drug. Decreased clearance of the unbound drug was related predominantly to a decrease in the volume of distribution and not an increase in the half-life. This phenomenon is considered to have minimal impact on drug accumulation upon multiple dosing. pThe apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) of total oxaprozin is approximately 11-17 L/70 kg. Oxaprozin is 99% bound to plasma proteins, primarily to albumin. At therapeutic drug concentrations, the plasma protein binding of oxaprozin is saturable, resulting in a higher proportion of the free drug as the total drug concentration is increased. With increases in single doses or following repetitive once-daily dosing, the apparent volume of distribution and clearance of total drug increased, while that of unbound drug decreased due to the effects of nonlinear protein binding. Oxaprozin penetrates into synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis patients with oxaprozin concentrations 2-fold and 3-fold greater than in plasma and synovial fluid, respectively. Oxaprozin is expected to be excreted in human milk based on its physical-chemical
properties; however, the amount of oxaprozin excreted in breast milk has not been evaluated.
Metabolism: Several oxaprozin metabolites have been identified in human urine or feces. Oxaprozin is primarily metabolized by the liver, by both microsomal oxidation (65%) and glucuronic acid conjugation (35%). Ester and ether glucuronide are the major conjugated metabolites of oxaprozin. On chronic dosing, metabolites do not accumulate in the plasma of patients with normal renal function. Concentrations of the metabolites in plasma are very low. Oxaprozin’s metabolites do not have significant pharmacologic activity. The major ester and ether glucuronide conjugated metabolites have been evaluated along with oxaprozin in receptor binding studies and in vivo animal models and have demonstrated no activity. A small amount (<5%) of active phenolic metabolites are produced, but the contribution to overall activity is limited.
Excretion: Approximately 5% of the oxaprozin dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. Sixty-five percent (65%) of the dose is excreted in the urine and 35% in the feces as metabolite. Biliary excretion of unchanged oxaprozin is a minor pathway, and enterohepatic recycling of oxaprozin is insignificant. Upon chronic dosing the accumulation half-life is approximately 22 hours. The elimination half-life is approximately twice the accumulation half-life due to increased binding and decreased clearance at lower concentrations.

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