In this article, we will discuss Tofacitinib (Mechanism of Action). So, let’s get started.
Mechanism of Action
Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor. JAKs are intracellular enzymes which transmit signals arising from cytokine or growth factor-receptor interactions on the cellular membrane to influence cellular processes of hematopoiesis and immune cell function. Within the signaling pathway, JAKs phosphorylate and activate Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) which modulate intracellular activity including gene expression. Tofacitinib modulates the signaling pathway at the point of JAKs, preventing the phosphorylation and activation of STATs. JAK enzymes transmit cytokine signaling through pairing of JAKs (e.g., JAKI/JAK3, JAK1/JAK2, JAK1/TyK2, JAK2/JAK2). Tofacitinib inhibited the in vitro activities of JAK1/JAK2, JAK1/JAK3, and JAK2/JAK2 combinations with IC50 of 406, 56, and 1377 nM, respectively. However, the relevance of specific JAK combinations to therapeutic effectiveness is not known.
Treatment with Tofacitinib (XELJANZ®) was associated with dose-dependent reductions of circulating CD16/56+ natural killer cells, with estimated maximum reductions occurring at approximately 8-10 weeks after initiation of therapy. These changes generally resolved within 2-6 weeks after discontinuation of treatment. Treatment with Tofacitinib (XELJANZ®) was associated with dose-dependent increases in B cell counts. Changes in circulating T-lymphocyte counts and T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+) were small and inconsistent. The clinical significance of these changes is unknown.
Total serum IgG, IgM and IgA levels after 6-month dosing in patients with rheumatoid arthritis were lower than placebo: however, changes were small and not dose-dependent.
After treatment with Tofacitinib (XELJANZ®) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, rapid decreases in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed and maintained throughout dosing. Changes in CRP observed with Tofacitinib (XELJANZ®) treatment do not reverse fully within 2 weeks after discontinuation, indicating a longer duration of pharmacodynamic activity compared to the pharmacokinetic half-life.
Similar changes in T cells, B cells, and serum CRP have been observed in patients with active psoriatic arthritis although reversibility was not assessed, Total serum immunoglobulins were not
assessed in patients with active psoriatic arthritis.