In this article, we will discuss the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders. So, let’s get started.
Classification of Psychiatric Disorders
Traditional Classification of Disorder
There are four general categories:
• Brain syndromes: Due to damage of brain tissue. It may be reversible or irreversible.
• Psychosis: These are several disorders in which the individual perception of reality is distorted and psychological functioning is disorganized.e.g., delusions (false belief), hallucinations (schizophrenic of paranoid disorder).
• Neurosis: These are mild disorders in which individual perception of reality is not grossly impaired. They are mainly due to internal conflicts and anxiety. e.g., anxiety disorder.
• Personality disorders: It is long standing maladaptive personality patterns. It affects the relationships, e.g., mistrust on others, antisocial behaviour, loneliness.
1. Two categories: Clinical syndromes & personality disorders.
2. Mental and Behavioural Disorders (ICD Classification): The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is an international standard diagnostic classification for a wide variety of health conditions. Chapter V focuses on “mental and behavioural disorders” and consists of 10 main groups:
• FO: Sexual including trauma, mental disorders
• F1: Mental and behavioural disorders due to use of psychoactive substances
• F2: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders
• F3: Mood (affective) disorders
• F4: Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders
• F5: Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors
• F6: Disorders of personality and behaviour in adult persons
• F7: Mental retardation
• F8: Disorders of psychological development
• F9: Behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence
• In addition, a group of unspecified mental disorders”.
3. Mental and Behavioural Disorders (the DSM-IV-TR, Text Revision, 2000): The DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000) consists of five axes (domains) on which disorder can be assessed. The five axes are:
• Axis I: Clinical Disorders (all mental disorders except Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation)
• Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
• Axis III: General Medical Conditions (must be connected to a Mental Disorder)
• Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems (e.g., limited social support network)
• Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (Psychological, social and job-related functions are evaluated on a continuum between mental health and extreme mental disorder)