Pathophysiology of Pituitary Apoplexy

In this article, we will discuss the Pathophysiology of Pituitary Apoplexy. So, let’s get started.

Pathophysiology

Hemorrhage and necrosis of the pituitary adenoma are the cardinal pathological features of pituitary apoplexy and occur due to:

1. Pituitary adenomas are more vulnerable to bleeding than other tumors.

2. A rapidly growing adenoma outstripes its blood supply and produces ischemia followed by necrosis and secondary hemorrhage.

3. Compression of a large pituitary stalk carrying blood vessels by an expanding tumor mass may render the entire anterior lobe ischemic followed by secondary hemorrhage.

4. Fragility of the tumor blood vessels predispose to bleeding.

5. Sheehan syndrome (pituitary necrosis following postpartum uterine hemorrhage) is characterized by amenorrhea and inability to lactate. Hypopituitarism develops acutely usually with severe secondary adrenal insufficiency.

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