Clinical Risk Factors that predispose to DVT and Pulmonary Embolism

In this article, we will discuss the Clinical Risk Factors that predispose to DVT and Pulmonary Embolism. So, let’s get started.

Clinical Risk Factors

1. Surgery, trauma (in-plaster injuries or fracture of lower limb bones)

2. Prolonged immobilzation (stroke, or intensive care unit patients)

3. Oral contraceptives, hormonal replacement therapy, pregnancy, postpartum

4. Cancer and cancer chemotherapy

5. Varicosity of the veins

6. Chronic kidney disease, arterial hypertension, blood transfusions

7. Congestive heart failure (stasis of blood), COPD with cor pulmonale

8. Physical inactivity, e.g. obesity and smoking

9. Hypercoagulability (deficiency of protein C and S, antithrombin) prothrombin gene mutation, antiphospholipid antibodies, polycythemia

10. Inherited gene defect (resistance to activated protein C, and factor V Leiden mutation)

11. Long-hour air travel, air pollution

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