Causes of Hypercalcemia

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Hypercalcemia. So, let’s get started.

Causes

Hypercalcemia results either from an increased entry of calcium into the extra-cellular fluid (from bone resorption or intestinal absorption) or a decreased renal calcium clearance. Following are the causes of hypercalcemia:

  • Increased intake or absorption
  • Milk alkali syndrome
  • Total parenteral nutrition
  • Excess amount of vitamin A or D.
  • Endocrinal disorders
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (adenoma)
  • Secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism
  • Acromegaly
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Pheochromocytomas
  • Neoplastic diseases
  • Tumor metastases (excessive production of PTH)
  • Solid tumor with secretion of PTH like protein
  • Hematological malignancies, i.e. multiple myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma (elaboration of osteoclast activating factor)
  • Miscellaneous
  • Thiazide diuretics, lithium intake
  • Paget disease of bone
  • Hypophosphatasia
  • Immobilzation
  • Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
  • Complication of kidney transplant
  • Aluminium intoxication
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