Zika Fever

In this blog we will discuss about Zika Fever causative agent Zika Virus Family Flaviviridae.

Mode of transmission is through blood transfusion and sexual transmission.

Symptoms include

Fever

Rash

Muscle and Joint pain

Headache

Red eyes

These symptoms resembles Dengue and Chickengunya


The first major outbreak, with 185 confirmed cases, was reported in 2007 in the Yap Islands of the Federated States of Micronesia. A total of 108 cases were confirmed by PCR or serology and 72 additional cases were suspected. The most common symptoms were rash, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, and no deaths were reported. The mosquito Aedes hensilli, which was the predominant species identified in Yap during the outbreak, was probably the main vector of transmission.

In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infections in Brazil. Even so, cases were reported in 14 states of the country. Mosquito-borne Zika virus is suspected to be the cause of 2,400 cases of microcephaly and 29 infant deaths in Brazil in 2015.

Zika virus can be identified by Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in acutely ill patients.
WHO recommends RT-PCR testing be done on serum collected within 1 to 3 days of symptom onset or on saliva samples collected during the first 3 to 5 days.

Treatment is mainly conservative i.e to take ample of fluids, take proper rest, take paracetamol.

Precaution includes use mosquito repellent, avoid sex during period of infection as the virus can be sexually transmitted, wear ling sleeves clothing.

Complications include in case of pregnant women the child can suffer microcephaly, it can also cause Guillain Barre Syndrome.

Differential Diagnosis includes Chickengunya, Dengue,
Leptospirosis, Malaria, Measles.

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