In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Viral Encephalitis. So, let’s get started.
Viral invasion and inflammation of the brain parenchyma is called viral encephalitis. It is an acute febrile illness with some evidence of meningeal involvement and signs and symptoms of diffuse and/or focal brain substance involvement. Some patients have involvement of meninges and brain parenchyma called meningoencephalitis. If the spinal cord is involved, then it is termed encephalomyelitis. It is far more serious than viral meningitis. Following are the various causes of viral encephalitis:
A. Immunocompetent individuals
- Arboviruses (Japanese, St. Louis, Western Equine, California, and WNV)
- Herpes simplex virus HSV-I and HSV-II
- Less Common
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Measles virus
- Influenza and Parainfluenza virus
- Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
- Rabies, rubella
B. Immunocompromised individuals, e.g. HSV, VZV, CMV, EBV, human herpes virus-6.