Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Acute Syncope

In this article, we will discuss the Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Acute Syncope. So, let’s get started.

Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology

Syncope results from transient ischemia of the brain usually in upright stature, brought about by reduction in cardiac output or hypotension due to any underlying cause. Depending upon the pathophysiologic mechanisms, syncope may be naturally mediated syncope (vasovagal, neurocardiogenic), postural (orthostatic), and cardiac. The underlying mechanisms in syncope are:

I. Inadequate vasoconstrictive response, examples are vasodepressor, postural syncope.

II. Reduced venous return, i.e. cough, micturition, defecation syncope.

III. Reduced cardiac output, i.e. myocardial and pericardial diseases, obstructive valvular lesions, and arrhythmia.

IV. Altered state of blood, e.g. anemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia etc.