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Biochemical Features of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

In this article, we will discuss the Biochemical Features of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. So, let’s get started.

Biochemical Features

The characteristic metabolic abnormalities diagnostic of DKA are depicted below. There is hyperglycemia, ketonemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, acidosis and elevated blood urea and serum creatinine

  • Increased (Following levels are increased in DKA)
  • Blood glucose (250-600 mg/dL)
  • Plasma ketone level
  • Plasma osmolality (300-320 mOsm/mL)
  • Hematocrit value
  • WBC count (>11000/L)
  • Blood urea, creatinine
  • Serum FFA and triglycerides
  • Anion gap
  • Serum amylase and lipase (20-25% cases)
  • Decreased (Following levels are decreased in DKA)
  • Serum sodium (125-135 mEq/L)
  • Serum magnesium
  • Serum potassium initially increase, later decreased
  • Bicarbonate (<15 mEq/L)
  • PCO2 (20-30 mmHg)
  • pH 6.8 to 7.3
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Precipitating Factors for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Complications of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

In this article, we will discuss the Precipitating Factors for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Complications of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. So, let’s get started.

Precipitating Factors

  • Infections (pneumonia, UTI, gastroenteritis, sepsis)
  • Alcohol intake
  • Acute vascular episodes (cerebral, coronary, peripheral)
  • Acute myocardial infarction (MI)
  • Trauma
  • Drugs, e.g. steroids, thiazides
  • Surgery
  • Emotional stress
  • Pancreatitis
  • Ignorance about the disease
  • Poverty, unemployment

Complications of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

  • Cerebral edema
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Thromboembolism
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Acute circulatory failure
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