In this article, we will discuss the Initial Screening in Patients for Depression. So, let’s get started.
Initial Screening in Patients for Depression
Three tools are recommended in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) guidance.
• Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): This is a nine-item questionnaire, which helps both to diagnose depression and to assess severity. It is based directly on the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). It takes about three minutes to complete. Scores are categorized as minimal (1-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), moderately severe (15-19) and severe depression (20-27).
• Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale: despite its name, this has been validated for use in primary care. It is designed to assess both anxiety and depression. It takes about 5 minutes to complete. The anxiety and depression scales each have seven questions, and scores are categorized as normal (0-7), mild (8-10), moderate (11-14) and severe (15-21).
• Beck Depression Inventory® – Second Edition (BDI-II): This also uses DSM-IV criteria. It takes about five minutes to complete. It is an assessment of the severity of depression and is graded as minimal (0-13), mild (14-19), moderate (20-28) and severe 29-36). It consists of 21 items to assess the intensity of depression in clinical and normal
patients. Each item is a list of four statements arranged in increasing severity about a particular symptom of depression.
Specific Tools for Depression
• Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) and Reynolds Child Depression Scale (RCDS).
• The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Reynolds’Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) are more suitable for adolescents.
• The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) – a self-rating scale – is for puerperal depression.
• The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is suitable for older patients. Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES), Beck and Zung depression assessment tools can also be used in the elderly.
• The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) is suitable for patients with dementia.
The Modified Scale for Suicidal Ideation
The purpose of this scale is to assess the presence or absence of suicide ideation and the degree of severity of suicidal ideas.The time frame is from the point of interview and the previous 48 hours.
Spirituality and Resilience Assessment Packet
A. Measuring Resilient Worldview: The IPPA
1. Control Dimension: Self Confidence during Stress
2. Meaning Dimension: Life Purpose and Satisfaction
3. Unifying Concept: Confidence in Life and Self
B. Measuring Intemalized Spirituality: The INSPIRIT
1. Religion and Spirituality as Overlapping Concepts
2. Characteristics of Internalized Spirituality.