Brief Note on Health Promotion

In this article, we will discuss Brief Note on Health Promotion. So, let’s get started.

Health Promotion

It is the process of enabling people to control over and to improve health. It is not directed against any particular disease, but it is intended to strengthen the host through variety of approaches such as:
• Health education
• Environmental modifications
• Nutritional interventions
• Lifestyle and behavioural changes

Health Education

• More cost effective
• Large number of disease prevented
• Targets of education may be general public, community leaders, health providers, patient’s decision makers and priority groups.

Environmental Modifications

• Provision of safe water
• Installation of sanitary latrines
• Control of insects and rodents
• Improvement of housing
This is not clinical, does not involve the physician.

Nutritional Intervention

• Food distribution and nutrition
• Improvement of vulnerable groups
• Child feeding programs
• Food fortification
• Nutrition education

Lifestyle and Behavioural Changes

• It is one of individual and community responsibility for health
• Health education is a basic element of all health activity.

Activities of Health Promotion

• Identify the target groups or risk groups
• Direct appropriate messages to the group
• Define the goals of health promotion
• Explore the means and alternate means of accomplishing the goals
• Involve organizational, political, social and economical interventions.

Specific Protection

Available interventions are:
• Immunization
• Use of specific nutrients
• Chemoprophylaxis
• Protection against occupational hazards
• Protection against accidents
• Protection from carcinogens
• Avoidance of allergens
• Pollution control
• Control of consumer product quality (drug, food, cosmetics, etc)

Early Diagnosis and Treatment

(Stamping the spark out rather than calling the fire brigade)
The earlier a disease is diagnosed and treated, the better it is rom the point of view of prognosis and preventing the occurrence of further cases or any
long term disability.
• It cannot be called as prevention.
• Important is reducing high morbidity and mortality.
• Example in HTN, TB, leprosy, STD, cancer, etc.
• Mass treatments can also be used.

Disability Limitation

It is the mode of intervention during the late pathogenesis phase.

According to WHO, as described below.

Impairment

• Any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function.
• Example: Loss of foot, mental retardation and defective vision.

Disability

• Any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.
• Example: Cannot walk.

Handicap

• A disadvantage for a given individual resulting from an impairment or disability.
• Example: Unemployment.

Rehabilitation

It is defined as “the combined and coordinated use of medical, social and educational and vocational measures for training and retraining the individual to the highest possible level of functional ability.”

Components

• Medical rehabilitation – restoration of function.
• Vocational rehabilitation – restoration of the capacity to earn a livelihood.
• Social rehabilitation – restoration of relationship.
• Psychological rehabilitation – restoration of functional dignity and confidence.

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