In this article, we will discuss the Definition of Malignant Hypertension. So, let’s get started.
It is characterized by marked rise in BP (≥220/130 mmHg) in a patient with underlying hypertension or sudden onset of hypertension in a previously normotensive person with grade IV fundal changes (hemorrhage, exudate and papilledema of optic fundi) and features of hypertensive encephalopathy and/or nephropathy. The characteristic lesions of malignant hypertension are necrotizing vasculitis, arterial thrombi and fibrinoid necrosis of walls of small arteries and arterioles.
The clinical manifestations have been attributed to spasms of cerebral vessels and to cerebral edema (hypertensive encephalopathy), deteriorating renal function and retinopathy (arteriolar spasm, exudate, hemorrhage and papilledema).
Perhaps less than 1% of hypertensive patients developed malignant phase, which can occur in the course of both essential and secondary hypertension. Rarely, it is the first recognised manifestation of hypertension with the advent of effective antihypertensive therapy, now 50% patient survive more than five years after development of malignant hypertension.