Common Causes of Coma

In this article, we will discuss some of the Common Causes of Coma. So, let’s get started.


A. Brainstem and Cerebellar lesions

  • Infarction, hemorrhage of brainstem and cerebellum
  • Tumor, trauma
B. Lesions of cerebral hemisphere with edema and brainstem compression
  • Infarction, hemorrhage
  • Encephalitis, meningitis, brain abscess
  • Tumor, trauma (subdural, extradural)
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Hypertensive encephalopathy
  • Status epilepticus
  • Cerebral malaria
C. Metabolic abnormalities
  • Diabetic and hypoglycemic coma
  • Hepatic failure, renal failure, cardiac failure, respiratory failure
  • Severe hyponatremia or hypokalemia
  • Hyper and hypocalcaemia
  • Hypoxia
  • Myxoedema coma, hypopituitarism
  • Adrenal crisis
  • Vitamin deficiencies (e.g. B1, nicotinic acid, B12)
D. Drugs and physical agents
  • Anaesthetic agents
  • Drug overdose or poisoning and alcohol ingestion
  • Hyper and hypothermia
E. Psychogenic/hysteria

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