In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Acute Confusional State (Delirium). So, let’s get started.
A. Vascular: Cerebral, Subarachnoid, Subdural hemorrhage or Hypertensive encephalopathy
B. Infections: Meningitis, encephalitis, typhoid or malarial encephalopathy.
C. Nutritional/Vitamin deficiency: Thiamine (Wrenickle-Korsakoff syndrome), vitamin B12.
D. Head Injury/trauma
E. Epilepsy (postictal)
F. Degenerative: Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Neoplastic disorders.
- Hepatic or renal failure
- Postoperative state
- Fluid and electrolyte disturbance
- Hypo or hyperglycemia
- Hypo or hyperthyroidism
- Adrenal crisis (Addison’s disease)
- Myocardial infarction
- Cardiac arrhythmia
- Congestive heart failure
- Respiratory failure (hypoxia, hypercapnia)
- Substance intoxication or withdrawal
- Systemic infection
- Heat injury (hypo or hyperthermia)
Drugs and toxins
- Drugs of use having anticholinergic properties, narcotics, and benzodiazepines.
- Drugs of abuse, e.g. alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal, opiates, ecstasy, LSD, cocaine, marijuana, etc.
- Poisons, e.g. inhalants, CO (carbon monoxide), ethylene glycol, pesticides
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