Causes of Cardiac Tamponade

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Cardiac Tamponade. So, let’s get started.

It is defined as clinical syndrome occurring due to the rapid accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac in a quantity sufficient to cause obstruction to the inflow of blood to the ventricles. It is a life-threatening emergency where cure can be achieved by pericardiocentesis (removal of pericardial fluid).

Causes

Acute Cardiac Tamponade

Trauma

  • Penetrating or blunt thoracic injury
  • Iatrogenic e.g. pacing, catheterization, pericardial tapping, post-resuscitation, anticoagulant therapy.

Cardiac rupture

  • Acute MI-free wall rupture
  • Aortic aneurysm rupturing into the pericardium.

Subacute or Chronic Cardiac Tamponade

  • Infection such as Tuberculosis, bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, etc.
  • Malignancy
  • Uremic pericarditis
  • Systemic disorders such as SLE, myxoedema, Dressler’s syndrome (post-MI or postcardiotomy), amyloidosis
  • Radiation
  • Idiopathic
  • Drugs e.g. anticoagulants, procainamide, isoniazid, hydralazine, daunorubicin, etc.
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