10 MCQs on Orthopedics (Part-VI)

In this article, we will solve 10 MCQs on Orthopedics (Part-VI). So, let’s get started.

Questions and Answers

Q1. Commonest degenerative joint disease is:

A. Gout

B. Osteoporosis

C. Rheumatoid arthritis

D. Psoriatic arthritis

Q2. Osteoarthritis does not affect:

A. Knee joint

B. Hip joint

C. Interphalangeal joint

D. Metacarpophalangeal joint

E. Shoulder joint

Q3. Treatment of osteoarthritis include all except:

A. Graded muscle exercises

B. Replacement of articular surfaces

C. Correction of deformities

D. Increase the weight bearing by the affected joint

E. Rest to the joint in acute phase

Q4. Avascular necrosis of head of femur can occur in:

A. Sickle cell anemia

B. Caison’s disease

C. Intracapsular fracture neck of femur.

D. Trochanteric fracture

Q5. March fracture is:

A. Stress fracture of neck of second metatarsal

B. Stress fracture of neck of talus

C. Compression fracture of calcaneum

D. Fracture lower end of fibula

Q6. Commonest complication of extra capsular fracture of neck of femur is:

A. Non-union

B. Ischemic necrosis

C. Malunion

D. Pulmonary complications

Q7. The best radiological view for fracture scaphoid is:



C. Lateral

D. Oblique

Q8. Commonest fracture in childhood is:

A. Femur

B. Distal humerus

C. Clavicle

D. Radius

Q9. Fracture femur in infants is best treated by:

A. Open reduction

B. Closed reduction

C. IM nailing

D. Gallows splinting

Q10. Treatment of fracture patella in 24-year-old young male is:

A. Patellectomy if undisplaced

B. No treatment required

C. Internal fixation if comminuted fracture

D. POP cast in full extension

Answers: 1. (D), 2. (D), 3. (D), 4. (C), 5. (A), 6. (C), 7. (D), 8. (C), 9. (D), 10. (D).


10 MCQs on Orthopedics (Part-V)

In this article, we will solve 10 MCQs on Orthopedics (Part-V). So, let’s get started.

Questions and Answers

Q1. A patient status post motor vehicle accident is treated using skeletal traction. What bone when fractured is often associated with this type of traction?

A. Femur

B. Humerus

C. Tibia

D. Fibula

Q2. A therapist examines a patient with bicipital tendonitis. Which clinical finding would you not expect the therapist to identify when examining the patient?

A. Isometric resistance to the biceps brachii increases subjective pain levels

B. Referred pain in the C7-C8 dermatome

C. A painful arc is noted with active range of motion of the involved shoulder

D. Tenderness to palpation over the bicipital tendon

Q3. Patella tracking dysfunction is a common problem in orthopedics. Dynamic factors for patella tracking dysfunction include:

A. Increase in the angulation between the quadriceps muscle and patella tendon.

B. A lateral femoral condyle that is not sufficiently prominent anteriorly.

C. Vastus medialis oblique muscle insufficiency

D. Shallow trochlear groove

Q4. A therapist instructs a patient in residual limb wrapping. Which bandage would be the most appropriate to utilise for a patient with a transfemoral amputation?

A. Two inch

B. Four inch

C. Six inch

D. Eight inch

Q5. A therapist provides preoperative training for a patient scheduled for thoracic surgery. Which activity would be most appropriate to deep vein thrombosis post surgery?

A. Deep breathing

B. Incentive spirometry

C. Coughing

D. Ankle pumps

Q6. A patient rehabilitating from cardiac surgery is monitored using an arterial line. The primary purpose of an arterial line is to:

A. Measure arterial pressure

B. Measure heart rate and oxygen saturation of the blood

C. Measure pulmonary artery pressure

D. Measure blood pressure

Q7. A therapist alerts a nurse to skin breakdown on a patient’s right heel. Which position would leave the patient most susceptible to additional tissue damage?

A. Right side lying

B. Left side lying

C. Prone

D. Supine

Q8. Based on the ‘rule of nines’, an adult who has burns on the anterior right arm, the anterior of the thorax, and the genital region would be classified as having burns over ___ percent of body?

A. 19

B. 2.5

C. 23.5

D. 28

Q9. A patient status post radical mastectomy secondary to breast cancer is referred to physical therapy. Typical intervention includes all of the following except:

A. Monitoring postoperative circumferential measurements

B. Passive and active assistive range of motion

C. Elevation and positioning of the upper extremity

D. Providing pain medication

Q10. A 36-year-old female is limited to 30 degrees of lateral rotation at the right shoulder. Which shoulder mobilisation technique would be the most beneficial to increase lateral rotation?

A. Anterior glide of the humeral head

B. Posterior glide of the humeral head

C. Inferior glide of the humeral head

D. Superior glide of the humeral head.

Answers: 1. (A), 2. (B), 3. (C), 4. (C), 5. (D), 6. (D), 7. (D), 8. (C), 9. (D), 10. (A).

Structure and Transmission of Coronavirus

In this article, we will discuss the Structure and Transmission of Coronavirus. So, let’s get started.


They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense-single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases. ‘Coronavirus’ the name is derived from latin word ‘corona’ which means crown or halo referring to the characteristic appearance of a crown around the virus particles when viewed under 2-D TEM (transmission electron microscopy).


Transmission (human to human) is primarily through close contacts via respiratory droplets generated by sneezing or coughing. The interaction of coronavirus spike protein with its complement host cell receptor is central in determining the tissue tropism, infectivity, and species range of the virus. SARS Coronavirus infects human cells by attaching to ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme) receptor.

Definition of Clay-Shoveler’s and Duverney Fracture

In this article, we will discuss the Definition of Clay-Shoveler’s and Duverney Fracture. So, let’s get started.

Clay-Shoveler’s Fracture

It is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebrae occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7 level.

Mechanism of injury: It usually occurs in laborers who perform activities involving lifting heavy weights rapidly with extended arms. Examples include shoveling soil, rubber or snow up and over the head backwards, using a pickax or scythe, and pulling out roots. The shear force of the muscles (trapezius and rhomboid muscles) pulling on the spine at the base of the neck tears off bone of the spine.

Duverney Fracture

Duverney fractures are isolated pelvic fractures involving only the iliac wing. They are generally stable fractures as they do not disrupt the weight bearing pelvic ring.

Mechanism of injury: They are caused by direct trauma to the iliac wing.

Definition, Etiology, and Precipitating Factors of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Non-Ketotic Coma

In this article, we will discuss the Definition, Etiology, and Precipitating Factors of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Non-Ketotic Coma. So, let’s get started.


Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Non-Ketotic Coma (HHNKC) is an acute metabolic decompensation of the diabetic state in type 2 diabetes, characterized by extreme hyperglycemia (blood glucose> 600 mg/dl) and increased osmolality (> 320 mOsm/kg) with dehydration without significant ketosis or acidosis.


The patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus are prone to develop hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic coma and it includes:

1. Type 2 diabetes detected for the first time (undiagnosed diabetics)

2. Middle aged or older diabetics (>50 years of age)

3. Those living alone

4. Those with no access to medical treatment

5. Those with associated infection or stroke

Precipitating Factors

Acute infections, burns, trauma

Vascular episode (CVA or AMI)

Excessive alcohol consumption


Drugs, e.g. thiazides, steroids, phenytoin, chlorpromazine, diazoxide, immunosuppressive, sympathomimetics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, etc

Recurrent vomiting

Dialysis (peritoneal or hemodialysis) in a patient with uremia

Use of osmotic agents (e.g. mannitol)

Recent surgery

Heart failure