Definition of Epidemic Dropsy

In this article, we will discuss the Definition of Epidemic Dropsy. So, let’s get started.


It is defined as edema occurring in epidemic form due to consumption of contaminated edible oil (mustard oil) with argemone oil- a toxic ingredient.

It is known to occur in epidemics in India, and recent epidemic of this poisoning has been reported from Delhi and the adjoining areas in 1990.

Mode of Poisoning

It is ingestional. Mustard oil is used as a cooking oil in certain parts of India especially West Bengal from where first epidemic broke. Mustard, sometimes gets contaminated with Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) seeds (in India, it is known as Sialkanta, Daurdy, Satyanshi, Brahmdandi or Pila Datura). Consumption of this contaminated oil leads to poisoning called epidemic dropsy. The toxic ingredients of argemone oil are sanguinarine and disanguinarine.


Complications of Acute Dysentery

In this article, we will discuss the Complications of Acute Dysentery. So, let’s get started.


Acute dysentery is an acute inflammation of the large intestine characterised by diarrhea with blood and mucus in the stool. Its causes a re bacillary (Shigella spp., enterohaemorrhagic E.coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) or amoebic infection.

Complications of Acute Dysentery are discussed below:

A. Intestinal

  • Toxic megacolon
  • Rectal prolapse
  • Intestinal perforations

B. Bacteremia

C. Metabolic/toxic

  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyponatremia and dehydration
  • Toxic encephalopathy

D. Blood

  • Hemolytic uremia syndrome

E. Joint

  • Reactive arthritis (Reiter’s syndrome)

Diseases Associated with Acute Nephritic Syndrome

In this article, we will discuss the Diseases Associated with Acute Nephritic Syndrome. So, let’s get started.

Diseases Associated

A. Primary glomerular diseases

  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (rapidly progressive crescentic)

B. Secondary to systemic diseases

  • Post-infectious glomerulonephritis- bacterial, e.g. post-streptococcal, SABE, viral, e.g. HBV
  • Systemic collagen vascular diseases- Systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic vasculitis, e.g. PAN, Wegener’s granulomatosis (ANCA small vessel vasculitis)
  • Hematological diseases- Henoch-Schönlein purpura, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, cryoglobulinemia, serum sickness
  • Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) diseases- Goodpasture’s syndrome

C. Miscellaneous

  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • DPT vaccination, IgA nephropathy

Clinical Features and Investigations of Acute Diarrhea

In this article, we will discuss the Clinical Features and Investigations of Acute Diarrhea. So, let’s get started.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Watery stools
  • Blood in the stool (hematochezia)
  • Excessive thirst

Signs of dehydration may be present

  • Patient irritable
  • Weak pulse, low BP
  • Depressed fontanelle
  • Dry pinched facies
  • Sunken eyeballs
  • Dryness of mouth, tongue, mucous membrane
  • Loss of skin turgor


  • Stool examination for leukocytes, ova, parasites, blood and pus cells, etc
  • Stool for fecal lactiferin: It is a sensitive marker of fecal leukocytes, indicates inflammatory diarrhea. It is estimated by ELISA and latex agglutination test
  • Stool immunoassay for bacterial toxins (c.difficile), viral antigen (rota virus) and protozoal antigens (Giardia, E.histolytica)
  • Stool culture for isolation of the infective agent, i.e. enterohemorrhagic and other types of E.coli, Vibrio species and Versinia
  • Complete hemogram
  • Blood biochemistry, e.g. urea, creatinine, electrolytes
  • Blood culture
  • Sigmoidoscopy with biopsies and upper endoscopy with duodenal aspirates and biopsy if indicated
  • Abdominal X-ray or CT scan

Etiology of Adrenal Crisis/Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

In this article, we will discuss the Etiology of Adrenal Crisis/Acute Adrenal Insufficiency. So, let’s get started.


Adrenal Causes

  • Sudden precipitation of Addison’s disease of adrenal origin
  • Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (anticoagulant therapy or coagulation/bleeding disorders)
  • Bilateral adrenal thrombosis, e.g. antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Adrenal necrosis due to sepsis or septicemia (Water-house-Friderichsen syndrome)

Pituitary Causes

  • Postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan’s syndrome)
  • Necrosis or bleeding into pituitary microadenoma
  • Head trauma
  • Lesions of pituitary stalk
  • Pituitary or adrenal surgery for Cushing’s syndrome

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