Definition and Causes of Thyrotoxic Crisis or Thyroid Storm

In this article, we will discuss the Definition and Causes of Thyrotoxic Crisis or Thyroid Storm. So, let’s get started.

Definition and Causes

Thyrotoxic Crisis or Storm is a life-threatening situation due to fulminant increase in the signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. This rare condition with a mortality of about 10% is a rapid deterioration of thyrotoxicosis with hyperpyrexia (>104°F), severe tachycardia (or new onset of arrhythmia) and altered mental status with extreme restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice.


  • Grave’s disease
  • Multinodular toxic goiter
  • Solitary toxic adenoma
  • Factitious thyrotoxicosis (self-administration of excessive thyroid hormone)
  • Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (Jodbasedow’s disease)

Definition of Hepatic Encephalopathy

In this article, we will discuss the Definition of Hepatic Encephalopathy. So, let’s get started.


Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a clinical syndrome of neuropsychiatric manifestations developing within a period of 8 weeks in a patient with acute fulminant hepatitis as a result of massive acute hepatocellular necrosis without any evidence of previous liver disease. Chronic hepatic encephalopathy develops between 8 weeks and 6 months after the onset of acute liver disease. Acute on chronic liver failure refers to acute deterioration of liver function in a patient with pre-existing liver disease.  This is due to the entry of nitrogenous products and gut-derived neurotoxins in the circulation and the brain. These nitrogenous products and neurotoxins normally originate in the intestine and are inactivated and metabolized in the liver. In hepatic failure, they bypass the diseased liver and reach the CNS through circulation leading to encephalopathy.

Causes of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. So, let’s get started.



  • Pregnancy and postpartum state
  • Sepsis or septic shock
  • Prolonged dehydration or hypotension
  • Oral contraceptive use
  • Polycythemia
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Leukemia
  • Hyperviscosity syndrome
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Deficiency of proteins C and S
  • Debilitating states or malignancy
  • Postoperative condition/state
  • Cyanotic heart disease


  • Sinusitis
  • Mastoiditis
  • Otitis
  • Pyogenic meningitis
  • Subdural empyema
  • Facial skin infection
  • Trauma, e.g. head injury
  • Jugular vein catheterization
  • Skull fracture

Definition and Classification of Status Epilepticus

In this article, we will discuss the Definition and Classification of Status Epilepticus. So, let’s get started.


It is defined as continuous seizural motor activity for more than 30 minutes or recurrent seizures without recovery of consciousness between seizures. During seizures, the patient may hurt himself/herself and there may be soiling of clothes with urine and feces. Status epilepticus is a medical emergency as it has the potential for neural damage and brain death, therefore, prompt and appropriate treatment is essential. Status epilepticus has many sub-types, i.e. recurrent tonic-clonic seizures (generalized convulsive status epilepticus), partial motor status, complex partial status, and absence status.

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus: In some cases, status epilepticus is not present with convulsion but is present with fluctuating abnormal behavior, confusion, impaired responsiveness, and automatism. EEG establishes the diagnosis. The treatment is similar to status epilepticus.


Convulsive status epilepticus

A. Primary generalized convulsive status epilepticus

  • Tonic-clonic status
  • Myoclonic status

B. Simple partial status epilepticus

C. Generalized major motor status with partial onset

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus

  • Complex partial status
  • Absence status epilepticus (typical or atypical)

Causes of Ventricular Fibrillation

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Ventricular Fibrillation. So, let’s get started.


Myocardial Ischemia/infarction

Electrolyte disturbance e.g. hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia

Electric Shock

Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate may degenerate to ventricular fibrillation

Congenital prolonged QT syndrome

Severe hypothermia


Drugs e.g. proarrhytmics, digitalis

Failure to proper synchronisation of cardioversion

As a terminal cardiac event in a dying heart.