What is Hypertrichosis?

In this article we will discuss about What is Hypertrichosis? So let’s get started.


It is also known as “Werewolf syndrome” characterized by abnormal hair growth all across the body. It is an extremely rare disease. It is of following types:

Congenital Hypertrichosis lanuginosa

Congenital Generalized Hypertrichosis

Congenital Localised Hypertrichosis

Congenital Hypertrichosis Terminalis

Congenital Circumscribed Hypertrichosis

Congenital Nevoid Hypertrichosis

Acquired Hypertrichosis lanuginosa

Acquired Generalized Hypertrichosis

Acquired Localised Hypertrichosis

Acquired Patterened Hypertrichosis

Congenital Hypertrichosis lanuginosa is caused due to paracentric inversion mutation of q22 band of chromosome 8. It is of autosomal dominant form.

Congenital Generalized Hypertrichosis is linked to chromosome Xq24-27.1.

Congenital Hypertrichosis Terminalis is caused due to mutaion in chromosome 17. It is also associated with mutation in gene MAP2K6.

Medications like cyclosporine, phenytoin, psoralen, minoxidil, diazoxide, acetazolamide, streptomycin are responsible to cause Hypertrichosis.

Symptoms include excessive hair growth in generalized it is present all over the body, in localised and circumscribed it is present in specific and restricted area. In Patterened hair growth occurs in a distinct pattern and based on hair type it can be lanugo, vellus or terminal.


Phrenic nerve

In this article we will discuss about Phrenic nerve. So let’s get started.

Phrenic nerve

It originates basically from C4 and partly from C5&C6 and majorly supplies motor fibres to diaphragm and sensory fibres to pericardium, mediastinal pleura and diaphragm peritoneum. It has two division right and left phrenic nerve. The right phrenic nerve courses over the brachio-cephalic artery, posterior to the subclavian vein, and crosses anteriorly to the root of right lung and then leaves the thorax passing through the vena cava hiatus opening in the diaphragm at the level of T8. It passes over the right atrium whereas left phrenic artery passes over the pericardium of the left ventricle and passes through the diaphragm. Irritation of phrenic nerve leads to hiccup reflex and disease or abscess in phrenic nerve causes referred pain in the concerned shoulder i.e left phrenic nerve corresponding referred pain to left shoulder.

Brachialis muscle

In this article we will discuss about Brachialis muscle. So let’s get started.

Brachialis muscle

It originates from the anterior surface of the distal end of humerus and gets inserted into the coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna. It is innervated by musculocutaneous nerve and radial nerve and artery supply is through the radial recurrent and brachial artery. It’s chief action is flexion of forearm at elbow joint. Brachialis tendonitis is characterized by pain and swelling of the brachialis muscle.

Brachioradialis muscle

In this article we will discuss about Brachioradialis muscle. So let’s get started.

Brachioradialis muscle

It originates from the upper 2/3rd of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral intermuscular septum and gets inserted into the lateral aspect of distal end of radius proximal to the radial styloid process. It is innervated by radial nerve and artery supply is through the radial recurrent artery. It’s main function is flexion of elbow and pronation of forearm to 90°. Clinically a shooting pain in the forearm because of Brachioradialis pain can mimic tennis elbow but brachioradialis pain is limited to only this muscle whereas tennis elbow involves complete inflammation of extensor muscle and tendons of elbow.

Serratus anterior muscle

In this article we will discuss about Serratus anterior muscle. So let’s get started.

Serratus anterior muscle

It originates as nine to ten slips of muscle fibres from the outer surface of upper eight or nine ribs and gets inserted into the medial border of scapula. Serratus anterior superior, intermediate and inferior fibres gets inserted into the superior angle, medial border and inferior angle respectively. It is innervated by long thoracic nerve and blood supply is through the lateral thoracic, superior thoracic and thoracodorsal artery. It’s main function is protraction of scapula and stabilizes scapula and assists in upward rotation of scapula. Clinically damage to the nerve supply of Serratus anterior leads to “winging of scapula”.

Deep tendor reflex grading

In this article we will discuss about Deep tendon reflex grading. So let’s get started.

Deep tendon reflex grading

Reflex testing is used to access neuromuscular integration of an individual. So following is the scale used to measure deep tendon reflex:

Grade 0= No response

Grade 1+= Diminished

Grade 2+= Normal

Grade 3+= Brisk, but of no clinical significance

Grade 4+= Very brisk, hyperactive, with clonus, of clinical significance.

Pronator teres muscle

In this article we will discuss about Pronator teres muscle. So let’s get started.

Pronator teres muscle

It’s humeral head originates from the medial supracondylar ridge of humerus aka common flexor origin and ulnar head from coronoid process of ulna. It’s insertion is in middle of the lateral surface of body of radius. It is innervated by median nerve and blood supply is through ulnar artery and radial artery. It’s main action is pronation of forearm and flexion of elbow. Clinically the neurogenic pain of pronator teres leads to pronator teres syndrome.

What is Xeroderma Pigmentosum?

In this article we will discuss about What is Xeroderma Pigmentosum? So let’s get started.

Xeroderma Pigmentosum

It is a autosomal recessive type of genetic disorder. It is caused due to genetic mutation in gene that repair damaged DNA, with mutation in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) enzyme. Mutation in XPG (ERCC5) gene can alone cause Xeroderma Pigmentosum. It’s frequency is 1 in 250,000 people in US, 1 in 20,000 in Japan and 1 in 430,000 in Europe. It was first discovered by Moritz Kaposi in 1870s. Symptoms include severe sunburn with just few minutes if sun exposure, freckles in sun exposed areas, corneal ulceration, eyes are painfully sensitive to sun and gets easily irritated, bloodshot and clouded, solar keratoses or rough surface growth, skin cancers, dry skin and presence of spider veins or telangiectasia. Complication includes skin cancer, brain cancers and cataracts. Treatment is avoid sun exposure, Vitamin D supplementation, retinoid creams. Average life expectancy is about 30 years.

What is Belching?

In this article we will discuss about What is Belching? So let’s get started.


It is an act of expelling the excess amount of air in the stomach through the mouth. It is also known as burping and sometimes eructation. Belching is the act of reducing the abdominal distention. Normally drinking carbonated water, swallowing excess air, overeating etc leads to belching. Clinically excessive belching is a sign of reflux disorder, celiac disease, hiatal hernia, lactose intolerance, food intolerance etc.

Palmaris longus muscle

In this article we will discuss about Palmaris longus muscle. So let’s get started.

Palmaris longus

It originates from the medial epicondyle of humerus and also from the adjacent intermuscular septa and from antebrachial fascia. It passes over the flexor retinaculum and gets inserted into the central part of flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis. It is innervated by median nerve and blood supply is through the ulnar artery. It’s primary action is flexion of the wrist. Clinically this tendon is used as tendon grafts.

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