WHO Classification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

In this article, we will discuss the WHO Classification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). So, let’s get started.


The WHO has modified FAB classification of acute myeloid leukemia by reducing the number of blasts required for diagnosis from 30 to 20% and incorporated molecular, morphologic and clinical features.

(1) AML with recurrent cytogenetic translocations

AML with t(8;21) (q22;q22); AML1 (CBFα)/ETO

Acute promyelocytic leukemia [AML with t(15;17) (q22;q12) and variants; PML/RARα]

AML with abnormal bone marrow eosinophils [inv (16) (p13;q22) or t(16;16) (p13;q22) CBFβ/MYH1]

AML with 11q23 (MLL) abnormalities

(2) AML with multilineage dysplasia

With prior myelodysplastic syndrome

Without prior myelodysplastic syndrome

(3) AML and myelodysplastic syndrome, therapy related

Alkylating agent-related

Topoisomerase type II-related

Other types

(4) AML not otherwise categorised

AML minimally differentiated

AML without maturation

AML with maturation

Acute myelomonocytic leukemia

Acute monocytic leukemia

Acute erythroid leukemia

Acute megakaryocytic leukemia

Acute basophilic leukemia

Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis

Myeloid sarcoma


Differential Diagnosis of Aplastic Anemia

In this article, we will discuss Differential Diagnosis of Aplastic Anemia. So, let’s get started.

Differential Diagnosis

Aplastic anemia should be differentiated from other conditions producing pancytopenia such as:

1. Subleukemic or aleukemic leukemia

2. Myelodysplastic syndrome

3. Hypersplenism (e.g. portal hypertension, infiltrative splenomegaly)

4. Bone marrow infiltration (carcinoma, myelofibrosis)

5. Megaloblastic anemia

6. Osteoporosis (marble bone disease)

7. Systemic lupus erythematosus

8. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

9. Disseminated tuberculosis

10. Overwhelming infection

Clinical Features of Acute Hemolytic Crisis

In this article, we will discuss the Clinical Features of Acute Hemolytic Crisis. So, let’s get started.

Clinical Features

Symptoms: Pallor, weakness, dyspnea, tachycardia, fatigue, abdominal pain

Jaundice (scleral icterus i.e. yellowness of eyes)

Dark color of urine and faeces

Splenomegaly (recent appearance or sudden increase in pre-existing splenomegaly)


Signs: Anemia, jaundice

Definition and Types of Mastoidectomy

In this article, we will discuss the Definition and Types of Mastoidectomy. So, let’s get started.


Mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure performed to remove the mastoid air cells. It can be done as part of treatment for mastoiditis, chronic suppurative otitis media or cholesteatoma or for access to the middle ear.


Simple mastoidectomy: This aims at draining mastoid air cells by a post ant app. It does not disturb the structure and function of middle ear, hence the hearing is unaffected.

Radical mastoidectomy: In this operation the mastoid, the middle ear and external auditory canal are converted into a single cavity by lowering the wall between the mastoid and external ear and by the removal of the ruminants of the ear drum, malleus, and incus the stapes is not removed as the labyrinth gets exposed and may be damaged. Conductive deafness may be a sequale of this operation.

Modified radical mastoidectomy: The mastoid, attic, and external ear are converted into a single cavity without touching the mesotympanum. Hearing is not affected.

10 MCQs on Orthopedics (Part-VI)

In this article, we will solve 10 MCQs on Orthopedics (Part-VI). So, let’s get started.

Questions and Answers

Q1. Commonest degenerative joint disease is:

A. Gout

B. Osteoporosis

C. Rheumatoid arthritis

D. Psoriatic arthritis

Q2. Osteoarthritis does not affect:

A. Knee joint

B. Hip joint

C. Interphalangeal joint

D. Metacarpophalangeal joint

E. Shoulder joint

Q3. Treatment of osteoarthritis include all except:

A. Graded muscle exercises

B. Replacement of articular surfaces

C. Correction of deformities

D. Increase the weight bearing by the affected joint

E. Rest to the joint in acute phase

Q4. Avascular necrosis of head of femur can occur in:

A. Sickle cell anemia

B. Caison’s disease

C. Intracapsular fracture neck of femur.

D. Trochanteric fracture

Q5. March fracture is:

A. Stress fracture of neck of second metatarsal

B. Stress fracture of neck of talus

C. Compression fracture of calcaneum

D. Fracture lower end of fibula

Q6. Commonest complication of extra capsular fracture of neck of femur is:

A. Non-union

B. Ischemic necrosis

C. Malunion

D. Pulmonary complications

Q7. The best radiological view for fracture scaphoid is:



C. Lateral

D. Oblique

Q8. Commonest fracture in childhood is:

A. Femur

B. Distal humerus

C. Clavicle

D. Radius

Q9. Fracture femur in infants is best treated by:

A. Open reduction

B. Closed reduction

C. IM nailing

D. Gallows splinting

Q10. Treatment of fracture patella in 24-year-old young male is:

A. Patellectomy if undisplaced

B. No treatment required

C. Internal fixation if comminuted fracture

D. POP cast in full extension

Answers: 1. (D), 2. (D), 3. (D), 4. (C), 5. (A), 6. (C), 7. (D), 8. (C), 9. (D), 10. (D).