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Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia

In this article, we will discuss Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia. So, let’s get started.

Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is diagnosed clinically by the development of hypertension, proteinuria, edema which may be associated with convulsions (eclampsia) or hemolysis, hepatic dysfunction, i.e. elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia (HELLP syndrome) even in the absence of significant hypertension. As the risk of eclampsia is real, BP control has to be much stricter in pregnant patients. Patient with mild eclampsia should be managed conservatively with limited physical activity. For women with severe eclampsia (BP>160/110 mmHg) should be treated with I.V. labetolol or hydralazine or nicardipine. Oral nifedipine and methyldopa can be used in patients with chronic hypertension in pregnancy (patients who are hypertensive become pregnant). Therefore, women with hypertension should be followed carefully because of increased risk to mother and fetus. The ACEs and ARBs should be avoided. The target blood pressure to be achieved is <140/90 mmHg by drug therapy.

Recommended drug (drugs of choice): Hydralazine, Labetolol, Nicardipine

Drugs to avoid: Nitroprusside, Trimethophan, Diuretics

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What is Belching?

In this article we will discuss about What is Belching? So let’s get started.

Belching

It is an act of expelling the excess amount of air in the stomach through the mouth. It is also known as burping and sometimes eructation. Belching is the act of reducing the abdominal distention. Normally drinking carbonated water, swallowing excess air, overeating etc leads to belching. Clinically excessive belching is a sign of reflux disorder, celiac disease, hiatal hernia, lactose intolerance, food intolerance etc.

Causes and Treatment of Meningitis (Adults)

In this article we will discuss about various Causes of Meningitis and its Treatment. So, let’s get started.

Causes

Bacterial Meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae etc

Viral Meningitis due to Herpes,HIV etc

Fungal Meningitis due to Cryptococcus

Parasitic Meningitis due to N.fowerli,Angiostrongylus cantonensis

Non-infectious Causes includes

Sjögren Syndrome

Lupus and Other Autoimmune Disorders

Rheumatoid arthritis

Behçet Syndrome etc

Risk factors include

Age – Children below 5 years are more likely to suffer Viral Meningitis while Bacterial Meningitis is more common in those below 20 yrs of age.

Compromised Immune System like Diabetics, HIV patients, Patients on Steroids etc

Pregnancy

Skipping Vaccination

Treatment

Antibiotics are used in Bacterial Meningitis depending upon the causative agent.

Antibiotics doesn’t help in Viral Meningitis.

Viral Meningitis usually gets cured on its own

Fungal Meningitis requires antifungal medications

Plenty of fluid, maintaining proper hydration and ample of rest is the mainstay of the treatment.

Pain Relievers, Steroids etc helps to reduce pain and Fever.

Vaccinations include

For pneumococcal meningitis

PCV13

PPSV23

For meningococcal meningitis

MenB for Neisseria meningitidis type B

MenACWY for Neisseria meningitidis type A,C W-135 and Y

CDC recommends MenACWY Vaccine for all children aged below 11 and a booster dose at 16 and MenB Vaccine for teenagers.

Symptoms of Meningitis (Adults)

In this article we will discuss about Sign and Symptoms of Meningitis (Adults). So let’s get started.

Sign and Symptoms

Fever

Headache

Stiff Neck

Vomiting

Sensitivity to light

Fatigue

Seizures

Irritability

Mental Changes like delirium,confusion, hallucinations even coma

Rash more common in meningococcal meningitis.

In the next article we will discuss about causes and treatment of Meningitis.

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