Regions of Abdomen

REGIONS Nine Regions of abdomen are : TOP : Right hypochondrium region(RHC) Epigastric region Left hypochondrium region (LHC) CENTRE : Right lumbar region Umbilical region Left lumbar region BOTTOM :  Right iliac (inguinal) region Hypogastric region Left iliac (inguinal) region ORGAN DISTRIBUTION Right hypcochondrium Small intestine, right kidney, gallbladder, liver Left hypochondrium Pancreas, left kidney, [...]

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Baker’s Cyst

A swelling in the space behind the knee (popliteal space) that is composed of a membrane-lined sac filled with synovial fluid that has escaped from the joint. Also known as synovial cyst of the popliteal space. Complications include Deep Vein Thrombosis, Compartment Syndrome etc. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CAUSES One study found that around 25% of patients [...]

Popliteal Fossa

The popliteal fossa is a diamond shaped area found on the posterior side of the knee. BORDERS OF POPLITEAL FOSSA The popliteal fossa is diamond shaped structure with four borders. These borders are formed by the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg and thigh. (a) Superomedial Border  Semimembranosus. (b) Superolateral Border  Biceps femoris. (c) [...]

Achilles Tendonitis

Inflammation of the Achilles tendon is called Achilles tendonitis. Achilles tendinitis is an overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, the band of tissue that connects calf muscles at the back of the lower leg to your heel bone (calcaneus) . Most commonly occurs in runners who have suddenly increased the intensity or duration of their [...]

Retrocalcaneal Bursitis

Retrocalcaneal bursitis is the most common heel bursitis. Retrocalcaneal bursitis is inflammation of the bursa (a small sac located where tendons pass over areas of bone around the joints), which lies over your heel (calcaneum) where your Achilles tendon inserts. OR Retrocalcaneal bursitis is inflammation of the bursa located between the calcaneus and the anterior [...]

Ankle Sprain

Ankle sprain is an injury to the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that surround and connect the bones of the leg to the foot. The injury typically happens when you accidentally twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the ligaments that hold your ankle bones and joints together. [...]

Scapulohumeral Rhythm

Scapulohumeral rhythm (also called as glenohumeral rhythm) is the kinematic interaction between the scapula and the humerus, given by Codman in the year 1930. This coordinated interaction is important for the optimal function of the shoulder. When there is a change in the normal position of the scapula relative to the humerus, can this can [...]

Cervical Spondylosis

EPIDEMIOLOGY Evidence of spondylotic change is frequently found in many asymptomatic adults, with 25% of adults under the age of 40, 50% of adults over the age of 40, and 85% of adults over the age of 60 showing some evidence of disc degeneration. Another study of asymptomatic adults showed significant degenerative changes at 1 [...]

Pain – Definition and Classification

The International Association of Study of Pain's widely used definition describes pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". CLASSIFICATION OF PAIN According to Pain Physiology Clifford J Woolf suggests three classes of pain: Nociceptive pain Inflammatory pain Pathological pain NOCICEPTIVE Nociceptive [...]

Varicose Veins

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CAUSES Annual incidence of varicose vein is 2% Life time prevalence approaches 40% Varicose vein are more common in females than men with ration of 2-3:1 10-20% patients are highly symptomatic that complaint about lower leg varicose vein CAUSES Obesity Pregnancy Genetic Predisposition Hormonal Imbalance Large Exercise Uncomfortable footwear Prolonged Standing / Sitting [...]

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