Causes of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. So, let’s get started.

Causes

General

  • Pregnancy and postpartum state
  • Sepsis or septic shock
  • Prolonged dehydration or hypotension
  • Oral contraceptive use
  • Polycythemia
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Leukemia
  • Hyperviscosity syndrome
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Deficiency of proteins C and S
  • Debilitating states or malignancy
  • Postoperative condition/state
  • Cyanotic heart disease

Local

  • Sinusitis
  • Mastoiditis
  • Otitis
  • Pyogenic meningitis
  • Subdural empyema
  • Facial skin infection
  • Trauma, e.g. head injury
  • Jugular vein catheterization
  • Skull fracture
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Definition and Classification of Status Epilepticus

In this article, we will discuss the Definition and Classification of Status Epilepticus. So, let’s get started.

Definition

It is defined as continuous seizural motor activity for more than 30 minutes or recurrent seizures without recovery of consciousness between seizures. During seizures, the patient may hurt himself/herself and there may be soiling of clothes with urine and feces. Status epilepticus is a medical emergency as it has the potential for neural damage and brain death, therefore, prompt and appropriate treatment is essential. Status epilepticus has many sub-types, i.e. recurrent tonic-clonic seizures (generalized convulsive status epilepticus), partial motor status, complex partial status, and absence status.

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus: In some cases, status epilepticus is not present with convulsion but is present with fluctuating abnormal behavior, confusion, impaired responsiveness, and automatism. EEG establishes the diagnosis. The treatment is similar to status epilepticus.

Classification

Convulsive status epilepticus

A. Primary generalized convulsive status epilepticus

  • Tonic-clonic status
  • Myoclonic status

B. Simple partial status epilepticus

C. Generalized major motor status with partial onset

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus

  • Complex partial status
  • Absence status epilepticus (typical or atypical)

Causes of Ventricular Fibrillation

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Ventricular Fibrillation. So, let’s get started.

Causes

Myocardial Ischemia/infarction

Electrolyte disturbance e.g. hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia

Electric Shock

Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate may degenerate to ventricular fibrillation

Congenital prolonged QT syndrome

Severe hypothermia

Cardiomyopathy

Drugs e.g. proarrhytmics, digitalis

Failure to proper synchronisation of cardioversion

As a terminal cardiac event in a dying heart.

Barton’s Fracture

In this article, we will discuss the Barton’s Fracture. So, let’s get started.

Barton’s Fracture

It is an intra-articular fracture of the distal radius. Here, the fracture extends from the articular surface of the radius to either its anterior or posterior cortices. The small distal fragment gets displaced and carries with it, the carpals. Depending upon the displacement, there is volar Barton’s Fracture (anterior type) and a dorsal Barton’s Fracture (posterior type). Treatment is closed reduction and a plaster cast. Open reduction and internal fixation with plate is required in those cases where closed reduction fails. It may be considered as a primary choice of treatment in young adults with significantly displaced fractures.

Causes of Biliary Colic

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Biliary Colic. So, let’s get started.

Causes

  • Choledocholithiasis (70-75%)
  • Biliary stricture
  • Malignant obstruction of biliary tract
  • Parasitic infection (ascariasis, clonorchiasis, sinesis)
  • Ductal compression by lymphadenopathy
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • Congenital anomalies of bile ducts such as choledochal cyst.
  • Chronic pancreatitis