Cervical spondylosis, Neck pain, Spondylosis, Physiotherapy

Cervical Spondylosis

EPIDEMIOLOGY Evidence of spondylotic change is frequently found in many asymptomatic adults, with 25% of adults under the age of 40, 50% of adults over the age of 40, and 85% of adults over the age of 60 showing some evidence of disc degeneration. Another study of asymptomatic adults showed significant degenerative changes at 1 […]

Pain Definition, Pain Classification Physiotherapy

Pain – Definition and Classification

The¬†International Association of Study of Pain’s widely used definition describes pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage”. CLASSIFICATION OF PAIN According to Pain Physiology Clifford J Woolf suggests three classes of pain: Nociceptive pain Inflammatory pain Pathological pain NOCICEPTIVE Nociceptive […]


Varicose Veins

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CAUSES Annual incidence of varicose vein is 2% Life time prevalence approaches 40% Varicose vein are more common in females than men with ration of 2-3:1 10-20% patients are highly symptomatic that complaint about lower leg varicose vein CAUSES Obesity Pregnancy Genetic Predisposition Hormonal Imbalance Large Exercise Uncomfortable footwear Prolonged Standing / Sitting […]

Anterior Compartment of Arm, Biceps Brachii, Coracobrachialis, Brachialis, Triceps brachii, Anconeus Physiotherapy Posterior Compartment of Arm

Anterior and Posterior Compartment of Arm (Muscles)

Anterior Compartment of Arm (1) Biceps Brachii Origin The biceps muscle has two heads (a) The short head and Origin at the coracoid process of scapula (b) The long head Origin at supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula Insertion Inserts at radial tuberosity and bicipital aponeurosis into deep fascia on medial part of forearm Artery Supply […]

Physiotherapy Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis

It is a painful chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory polyarthritis that affects peripheral joints mainly small joints of hands and feet (metacarpophalangeal joints, interphalangeal joints). EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CAUSES CLINICAL FEATURES AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Joint swelling and pain RA shows characteristic symmetrical pattern of joint involvement The proximal interphalangeal joints and metacarpophalangeal joints are often […]