10 MCQs on Orthopedics (Part-I)

In this article, we will solve 10 MCQs on Orthopedics (For Medical PG entrance exams). So, let’s get started.

Questions and Answers

Q1. SOMI brace is:

A. Sterno-occipital mandibular immobilzation

B. Scapulo-occipital manubrium immobilzation

C. Supraobturator muscle immobilzation

D. Scapulo-occipital manipulation instrument

Q2. The primary area of the residual limb used for weight bearing in a transtibial prosthesis is the:

A. Patella tendon

B. Distal end of the residual limb

C. Lateral tibial condyle

D. Fibular head

Q3. Cock-up splint is used in the management of:

A. Ulnar nerve palsy

B. Brachial plexus palsy

C. Radial nerve palsy

D. Combined ulnar and median nerve palsy

Q4. Von Rosen splint is used in:

A. CTEV

B. CDH

C. Fracture shaft of femur

D. Fracture tibia

Q5. Milwaukee brace is used in:

A. Scoliosis

B. Fracture skull

C. Fracture tibia

D. CTEV

Q6. Putti platt surgical procedure to repair recurrent dislocation involves:

A. Shortening of scapularis muscle

B. Shortening of infraspinatus muscle

C. Shortening of supraspinatus muscle

D. Wedge osteotomy of humerus

Q7. People having following tissue types are more prone to have rheumatoid arthritis:

A. HLA-B34

B. HLA-DR4

C. HLA-B27

D. HLA-D27

Q8. Bilateral symmetrical pseudo fractures are seen most commonly in:

A. Multiple myeloma

B. Fibrous dysplasia

C. Osteomalacia

D. Paget’s disease

Q9. The fascia which is generally not involved in Dupuytren’s contracture is:

A. Cleland’s ligament

B. Greyson’s ligament

C. Spiral band

D. All of the above

Q10. The etiology of periarthritis of shoulder is:

A. Degenerative cartilage in glenoid cavity

B. Infection of shoulder joint

C. Fracture of surgical neck of humerus

D. Idiopathic

Answers: 1 (A), 2 (A), 3 (C), 4 (B), 5 (A), 6 (A), 7 (B), 8 (C), 9 (D), 10 (D).

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Signs of Respiratory Muscle Paralysis and Impending Respiratory Failure

In this article, we will discuss the Signs of Respiratory Muscle Paralysis and Impending Respiratory Failure. So, let’s get started.

Signs

1. Signs of Respiratory Muscle Paralysis

An increase in respiratory rate

Inability to count up to 20 in one breath

Use of accessory respiratory muscles

Suppressed cough

Paradoxical inward movements of abdomen during inspiration

2. Signs of impending respiratory failure

Decreasing forced vital capacity

Declining maximal respiratory pressures

Hypoxemia on ABG

Pathology of Acute Nephritic Syndrome

In this article, we will discuss the Pathology of Acute Nephritic Syndrome. So, let’s get started.

Pathology

The hallmark of acute nephritic syndrome is glomerular inflammation (hypercellularity) and the classical pathologic correlation of the nephritic syndrome is proliferative glomerulonephritis. The proliferation of glomerular cells is due to infiltration of the glomerular tuft by neutrophils and monocytes with subsequent proliferation of endothelial and mesangial cells (endocapillary proliferation). In most severe form, nephritic syndrome is associated with acute inflammation of most of the glomeruli (more than 50%), e.g. acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. In less severe form, fewer than 50% of the glomeruli may be involved, i.e. focal proliferative glomerulonephritis. In its mildest form, cellular proliferation is just confined to the mesangium, i.e. mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis.

Causes of Viral Encephalitis

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Viral Encephalitis. So, let’s get started.

Viral invasion and inflammation of the brain parenchyma is called viral encephalitis. It is an acute febrile illness with some evidence of meningeal involvement and signs and symptoms of diffuse and/or focal brain substance involvement. Some patients have involvement of meninges and brain parenchyma called meningoencephalitis. If the spinal cord is involved, then it is termed encephalomyelitis. It is far more serious than viral meningitis. Following are the various causes of viral encephalitis:

Causes

A. Immunocompetent individuals

  • Common
  • Arboviruses (Japanese, St. Louis, Western Equine, California, and WNV)
  • Herpes simplex virus HSV-I and HSV-II
  • Mumps
  • Less Common
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Measles virus
  • Rare
  • Adenovirus
  • Influenza and Parainfluenza virus
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
  • Rabies, rubella

B. Immunocompromised individuals, e.g. HSV, VZV, CMV, EBV, human herpes virus-6.

 

 

Common Causes of Coma

In this article, we will discuss some of the Common Causes of Coma. So, let’s get started.

Causes

A. Brainstem and Cerebellar lesions

  • Infarction, hemorrhage of brainstem and cerebellum
  • Tumor, trauma
B. Lesions of cerebral hemisphere with edema and brainstem compression
  • Infarction, hemorrhage
  • Encephalitis, meningitis, brain abscess
  • Tumor, trauma (subdural, extradural)
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Hypertensive encephalopathy
  • Status epilepticus
  • Cerebral malaria
C. Metabolic abnormalities
  • Diabetic and hypoglycemic coma
  • Hepatic failure, renal failure, cardiac failure, respiratory failure
  • Severe hyponatremia or hypokalemia
  • Hyper and hypocalcaemia
  • Hypoxia
  • Myxoedema coma, hypopituitarism
  • Adrenal crisis
  • Vitamin deficiencies (e.g. B1, nicotinic acid, B12)
D. Drugs and physical agents
  • Anaesthetic agents
  • Drug overdose or poisoning and alcohol ingestion
  • Hyper and hypothermia
E. Psychogenic/hysteria