Framingham Criteria for Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

In this article, we will discuss the Framingham Criteria for Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure. So, let’s get started.

Framingham Criteria for Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure

Major Criteria include:

  • Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
  • Distended neck veins
  • Rales
  • Cardiomegaly
  • Acute pulmonary edema
  • S3 gallop
  • Increased venous pressure (>16 cmH2O)
  • Positive hepatojugular reflux

Minor criteria include:

  • Peripheral edema
  • Nocturnal cough
  • Exertional dyspnea
  • Congestive hepatomegaly
  • Pleural effusion
  • Reduced vital capacity by one third
  • Tachycardia (HR>120/min)
  • Weight loss

For diagnosis: At least one major and two minor criteria are required.

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Causes of Cardiac Tamponade

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Cardiac Tamponade. So, let’s get started.

It is defined as clinical syndrome occurring due to the rapid accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac in a quantity sufficient to cause obstruction to the inflow of blood to the ventricles. It is a life-threatening emergency where cure can be achieved by pericardiocentesis (removal of pericardial fluid).

Causes

Acute Cardiac Tamponade

Trauma

  • Penetrating or blunt thoracic injury
  • Iatrogenic e.g. pacing, catheterization, pericardial tapping, post-resuscitation, anticoagulant therapy.

Cardiac rupture

  • Acute MI-free wall rupture
  • Aortic aneurysm rupturing into the pericardium.

Subacute or Chronic Cardiac Tamponade

  • Infection such as Tuberculosis, bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, etc.
  • Malignancy
  • Uremic pericarditis
  • Systemic disorders such as SLE, myxoedema, Dressler’s syndrome (post-MI or postcardiotomy), amyloidosis
  • Radiation
  • Idiopathic
  • Drugs e.g. anticoagulants, procainamide, isoniazid, hydralazine, daunorubicin, etc.